Space Situational Awareness Forum - GERMAN AEROSPACE CENTRE Presentation

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Transcript of Space Situational Awareness Forum - GERMAN AEROSPACE CENTRE Presentation

  1. 1. SMARTnet Results of Test Campaigns Hauke Fiedler, Thomas Schildknecht, Martin Weigel, Michael Meinel, Rolf Hempel, Johannes Herzog, Marcel Prohaska, Martin Ploner, Jan Siminski www.DLR.de Folie 1
  2. 2. Processed Conjunctions 2012 2013 2014 Satellite Altitude CSM CAM CSM CAM CSM/CDM CAM TSX/TDX (excl.tdtx) 510 16 2 2222 (1560) 0 7366 (4237) 4 GRACE-1 460 (-400) 1 0 0 0 0 0 GRACE-2 460 (-400) 1 0 2 0 0 0 BIR 510 (-480) 8 0 0 0 10 0 TET 500 (-460) 3 0 1 0 0 0 SBW-1 (excl.ctrl) GEO 35 (6) 1 19 (6) 0 110 (8) 0 SBW-2 (excl.ctrl) GEO 59 (0) 0 135 (2) 0 224 (6) 0 - CSM generation thresholds for TSX/TDX were enlarged August 2013 - Message format was changed to CDM in May 2014 www.DLR.de Folie 2 Precise orbit information of (all) objects required Sensors for: LEO (expansive) GEO (not so expansive)
  3. 3. www.DLR.de Folie 3 10.02.2009Motivation: Operational Collision Avoidance at GSOC TerraSAR-X (2007-) / TanDEM-X (2010-) - Controlled against a reference orbit inside a tube of 250 m radius - Flying in a close formation with the relative distance < 500 m - 510 km altitude Conjunction on 2014/03/03
  4. 4. SMARTnet Optical Network for Monitoring Geostationary Orbits www.DLR.de Folie 4
  5. 5. Global network for monitoring the geostationary ring Theory: complete coverage with 3 locations Northern / southern hemisphere for compensating seasonal variations 6 locations Telerobotical operation Close cooperation with AIUB / ZIMsmart-telescope Optimized scheduler for all telescopes SMART-01: Mounting with 2 telescopes 50cm, 0.7 FOV, 0.6/Pixel 20cm, 2.0 FOV, 1.8/Pixel Sutherland Observatory, South Africa Motivation: Operational Collision Avoidance in GEO www.DLR.de Folie 5
  6. 6. Global network for monitoring the geostationary ring Theory: complete coverage with 3 locations Northern / southern hemisphere for compensating seasonal variations 6 locations Telerobotical operation Close cooperation with AIUB / ZIMsmart-telescope Optimized scheduler for all telescopes SMART-01: Mounting with 2 telescopes 50cm, 0.7 FOV, 0.6/Pixel 20cm, 2.0 FOV, 1.8/Pixel Sutherland Observatory, South Africa Motivation: Operational Collision Avoidance in GEO www.DLR.de Folie 6 Sutherland Zimmerwald ---- Sunset Sunrise Integrated Obs-Time: Average > 11.5h!
  7. 7. Motivation: Operational Collision Avoidance in GEO www.DLR.de Folie 7 Coverage: - 32% of geostationary ring - 61% of active satellites Coverage: - 83% of geostationary ring - 89% of active satellites Coverage: - 100% of geostationary ring - 100% of active satellites
  8. 8. Status Mounting, 50cm telescope and CCD camera tested Serveral nights Objects down to 18.5mag detected First 2 nights: Long test run: May June o 46 COSPAR Objects o 14 AIUB Objects o 10 unknown objects Geostationary object Tracklet: Epoch + RA / DEC from image SMARTnet: Test Campaign at Zimmerwald www.DLR.de Folie 8
  9. 9. Object Identification with Optical Measurements Least squares fit New measurement type: Attributable www.DLR.de Folie 9
  10. 10. Loss function L Optimisation Lambert-Solution www.DLR.de Folie 10 Object Identification with Optical Measurements
  11. 11. Separation of real / false tracklets above threshold of loss function (chi- squared distribution) Filter rate depends on accuracy, time difference, survey strategy, Object Correlation www.DLR.de Folie 11
  12. 12. Maximum 161m 84m 78m 74m 71m 64m www.DLR.de Folie 12 Residuals to GPS Reference Orbit New focusser, telescope fully collimated Improvement: schedule observations for orbit refinement
  13. 13. Results: GEO Cluster (Eutelsat Hotbird 13B, 13C, 13D) 111 Tracklets of two nights (Sep. 25/26, 26/27) TLE orbits lead to erroneous correlation (06032A?) Iterative process: correlation, orbit determination, correlation Residuals orbit determination 06032A RMS =0.25 =0.35 08065A RMS =0.30 =0.34 09008B RMS =0.29 =0.34 Final solution after 3rd iteration with correlation of all tracklets www.DLR.de Folie 13
  14. 14. Hardware and software components are tested o Astrometric accuracy better than expected o Limiting magnitude of telescope estimated o Detection of unknown objects o Identification of known objects o Orbit determination with very small deviation to reference orbit Foundations in South Africa are planned this month Final end-to-test in Zimmerwald / Switzerland: Scheduling, observing, pre-processing, transferring data to GSOC, cataloguing at GSOC with BACARDI in autonomous mode Start of operations: end of 2015 Results www.DLR.de Folie 14 What is BACARDI?
  15. 15. BACARDI Backbone Catalogue of Relational Debris Information Visit of Paul Cefola, / 09. October 2012 www.DLR.de Folie 15
  16. 16. Science and Research Data bank of up to 1.000.000 objects HPC for object correlation, orbit determination, propagation, object identification and detection of manoeuvres and fragmentations Mission Support Orbit information, collision prediction, re-entry prediction Objective Data bank with preferably high completeness and high accuracy Primary source: sensor data and operator data Secondary source: externally generated ephemerides BACARDI: Backbone Catalogue of Relational Debris Information www.DLR.de Folie 16
  17. 17. Network of sensors Prozessors Interfaces Tracking Radar Surveillance Radar Laser Tracking TelescopesSpace Based External Data Orbit information Object properties User Sensor schedulerSolar activity Data bank Sensor data Correlation Catalogue objects and candidates Ephemerides incl. covariance Maneuver planned / executed Meta- and log data Data policy Object correlation Orbit determination Orbit propagation Maneuver detection Fragmentation detection Prediction of collisions Re-Entry prediction BACARDI BACARDI Overview www.DLR.de Folie 17 (provenance data)
  18. 18. BACARDI: Internal Nodes www.DLR.de Folie 18 SensorOrganisation Observation Observation Error Correction of Observations Sensor Error Statistic Object TLE Osculating Elements Ephemeris DSST Orbit TLE Error Statistic Manoeuvre Satellite Launch Fragmentation Re-Entry CA (Close Approach) Orbit Propagation Orbit Modelling Space Weather Time & Coordinate System Orbit Determination CA Analysis / Warning CA Detection CA Threshold Correlation
  19. 19. Features Definable roles for each user Each individual datum might has its own data policy Possibility of a distributed system Data Provenance: Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. o Backtracking of each produced product (ephemerides, state vectors, correlated objects, ) o Reproducibility of products and data generated BACARDI www.DLR.de Folie 19
  20. 20. Conclusions www.DLR.de Folie 20 Collision analyses cost manpower, maneuver costs mission time Precise orbit information essential (ephemeris - including covariance - is required, no knowledge of object necessary) No information of all objects with sufficient accuracy publically available Desirable: information about satellite status, post mission disposal in GEO, and maneuvers SMARTnet and BACARDI set up as a GEO surveillance system Suggestion: open catalogue for satellite operators with highly accurate orbit information
  21. 21. www.DLR.de Folie 21 Thanks for Your Attention! Re-Entry Predictions 2012