Some Observations on Trade Relations between Austria and Turkey

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The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) hosted a joint international conference in cooperation with the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT) in Vienna on March 18, 2013. The conference took place from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. at the Kassensaal of the OeNB, Otto-Wagner-Platz 3, 1090 Vienna. The topic of this conference was "Turkish-Austrian economic relations in a European and international context". The panel was chaired by Dr. Ewald Nowotny. The panelists were: Murat Çetinkaya (CBRT), Amb. Ayşe Sezgin (MFA), Dr. Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer (VIG) and Prof. Dr. Aykut Kibritçioğl. For more information on the panel, you may visit: http://kibritcioglu.com/iktisat/oenb-20130318.html

Transcript of Some Observations on Trade Relations between Austria and Turkey

  • 1. Some Observations on Trade Relations between Austria and Turkey Prof. Dr. Aykut KibritioluSection for Economic Development and International Economics,Department of Economics, Faculty of Political Sciences,Ankara University, Turkeyhttp://kibritcioglu.com/iktisat/ & [email protected] Discussion chaired by Governor Ewald Nowotny (OeNB) on: Turkish-AustrianEconomic Relations in a European and International Context. Panelists: Murat etinkaya(CBRT), Aye Sezgin (MFA), Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer (VIG), Aykut Kibritiolu (AU).sterreichische Nationalbank, KassensaalVienna, March 18, 20131 / 38

2. Turkey and Austria:Two Different Economies with Weak Linkages? Annual Inflation Rate (2010-12, HICP, A Comparison Turkey %) according to Selected9 Austria Seven Indicators 6 External balance of goods andUnemployment Rate (2012.11, %)3services / GDP (2010-12, %)0 -3 -6 -9 Energy intensity of the economy Real GDP Growth (2010-12, %)(2010, kgoe per 10 euro) Total Greenhouse Gas EmissionsAnnual Population Growth (2009-11,(2009-10, in CO2 equivalent, 1990 =%) 2.0)Source: Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, March 5, 20132 / 38 3. Movement of Goods, Services & Factors among Two Economies: Direct & Indirect Linkages Trade in GoodsTrade in Services Labor Movements Capital MovementsTechnology Transfer TURKEYAUSTRIA Trade in GoodsTrade in Goods Trade in Services Trade in Services Labor MovementsLabor Movements Capital Movements Capital Movements Technology TransferTechnology Transfer Trade in Goods Trade in Services Trade in Goods Third Labor Movements Trade in Services Capital MovementsLabor Movements Technology Transfer Capital MovementsTechnology Transfer Countries Quick Answer? Joint economic activities in third countries?OECD-WTO: TiVA ?3 / 38 4. Turkey: open to trade, but low per capita trade Austria: member of the trade nations club? 160United Arab Major Trade Partners Emirates of Austria (2011): 140EU27 Trade to GDP ratio (%, 2009-2011) 120IraqSwitzerlandSwitzerlandChina KoreaAustria USA 100S. Arabia Russian FederationGermany 80Major Trade PartnersIsraelof Turkey (2011): Iran UK 60 China France EU27 Russian Fed. Turkey Russian Federation 40China EU27 USA USABrasil 20 IraqIran0 United Arab Emirates 0100002000030000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 Trade per capita (US$, 2009-2011)Source: WTO Statistics Database (SDB), http://stat.wto.org, September 2012 4 / 38 5. Merchandise Trade by Commodity (mln. USD at current prices, 1980 & 2011) Share in Share inIncrease (%,IndicatorFlow ReporterPartner 1980 2011World ...World ...from 1980 to(%, 1980)(%, 2011)2011) Agricultural productsExportsAustria World2100173560.71.0726 Agricultural productsExportsTurkeyWorld1881149490.60.9695 Agricultural productsExportsWorld World298800 1659524100.0100.0 455 Agricultural productsImportsAustria World2517177970.81.0607 Agricultural productsImportsTurkeyWorld 388175740.11.0 4429 Agricultural productsImportsWorld World312217 1745208100.0100.0 459 Manufactures ExportsAustria World 14531 1450721.31.3898 Manufactures ExportsTurkeyWorld 782 1042100.10.913226 Manufactures ExportsWorld World 1092378 11510949 100.0100.0 954 Manufactures ImportsAustria World 16849 1364211.51.1710 Manufactures ImportsTurkeyWorld3265 1420340.31.2 4250 Manufactures ImportsWorld World 1110747 11927185 100.0100.0 974 Both Turkey and Austria increased their exports & imports to/from the rest of the world between 1980 and 2011, in terms of trade values. Austrian shares in world exports & imports of agricultural products increased, while its share in imports of manufacturing goods decreased slightly. Turkeys shares in global exports & imports of both, agricultural and manufacturing commodities increased significantly.Source: WTO Statistics Database (SDB), http://stat.wto.org, September 2012 5 / 38 6. Turkey & Austria within the Network of Global Trade in Goods (%, World = 100, 1980 & 2011)1980 (W=>W: 100)Importing Countries TurkeyAustriaRest of the World World (Total) Turkey0.00 0.150.15 Countries Exporting Austria0.010.910.91 Rest of the World0.14 0.8997.9198.94 World (Total)0.15 0.8998.96 100.002011 (W=>W: 100) Importing CountriesTurkey AustriaRest of the World World (Total) Turkey0.010.75 0.76 Countries Exporting Austria0.01 0.95 0.96 Rest of the World1.16 1.0096.11 98.28 World (Total)1.17 1.0197.82 100.00 Both countries shares in global trade in goods are, and were, limited, but Turkey increased her world share remarkably within the last three decades.Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 6 / 38 7. Turkey & Austria within the Network ofGlobal Trade in Goods (TR X = 1.0, 1980 & 2011)1980 (TR=>AU: 1.0) Importing CountriesTurkey AustriaRest of the World World (Total) Turkey1.053 54 Countries Exporting Austria 1.8323 325 Rest of the World 503163490235269 World (Total) 5231735278356482011 (TR=>AU: 1.0) Importing CountriesTurkey AustriaRest of the World World (Total) Turkey1.0127 128 Countries Exporting Austria 1.7161 163 Rest of the World1971691627716644 World (Total)1991701656616935 However, the relative global importance of trade between Turkey andAustria has not increased significantly.Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 7 / 38 8. Country Composition of Austrian Exports (%, 1960-2011)(Reporter: Austria, Exports, %) 100% Turkey Rest of the World90% Middle East & North Africa80%Russian Federation China70%Switzerland USA60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members)50% Germany40%30%20%10%0% 190 000 180 000 170 000 160 000 150 000 140 000 130 000 Turkey Rest of the Wor ld Midd le Eas t & North Africa Russian Federa tion Chin a Swit zerlan d 1960 19641966 1968197019741978 19801982 1984 1988 19921994 199619982002 20042006 20081962 1972 197619861990 20002010 120 000 USA 110 000 EU12 (new mem bers) 100 000 EU13 (old m embers)90 000 Germ any80 00070 00060 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 019621970 1980 1988 1992 200020062010 1960 19641966 1968 19721974 197619781982 1984198619901994 199619982002 2004 2008 Turkey is not a major target country for Austrian exporters. Their destination is mainly (old, and now also new) EU countries.Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 8 / 38 9. Country Composition of Austrian Imports (Reporter: Austria, Imports, %) (%, 1960-2011) 100% Turkey90%Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa80%Russian Federation China70%Switzerland USA60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members)50% Germany40%30%20%10%0% 190 00 0 180 00 0 170 00 0 160 00 0 150 00 0 140 00 0TurkeyRe st of the WorldMiddle Eas t & North Af ricaRussian Fe derationChina 130 00 0 Sw itzerla nd 120 00 0 USA19661970 1972 19761978 1980 1984 19921998 2000 20042006 20082010 19601962 1964 1968197419821986 198819901994 19962002 110 00 0 EU12 (new m embers) 100 00 0 EU13 (old me mbe rs)90 00 0 Ge rm any80 00 070 00 060 00 050 00 040 00 030 00 020 00 010 00 0 01 96 0 1 99 6 19 62 196 4 19 66 196 8 1 970 19 72 1 974 19 76 1 978 19 80 198 2 19 84 198 6 1 988 199 0 1 992 19 9419 982 00020 02200 42 00620 082 010 Turkey is not a major source country for imported goods to Austria. Germany & EU13 are the main exporters to Austria. After 1994, the new EU countries are gaining on importance in Austrian imports.Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 9 / 38 10. Country Composition of Turkish Exports (%, 1960-2011) (Reporter: Turkey, Exports, %) 100% Austria90%Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa80%Russian Federation China70%Switzerland USA60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members)50% Germany40%30%20%10%0% 140 000 Austria 130 000 Rest of the W orld 120 000 Midd e East & North Africa l 110 000 Russian Federation China 100 000 Sw itzer land 90 000USA 80 000EU12 (new members) EU13 (old mem bers) 70 000 Germany 60 00019661970 1972 19761978 1980 1984 19921998 2000 20042006 20082010 19601962 1964 1968197419821986 198819901994 19962002 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 19601962 19641966 19681970 19721974 19761978 198019821990 20082010 19841986 1988 19921994 19961998 20002002 20042006 Austria is not a major target country for Turkish exporters. Their destination is mainly EU (old, and now new) countries.Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org10 / 38 11. Changes in Country Composition of Turkish Exports (%, 1948-2011)100 0 Country Shares inTurkish Exports(1948-2011)(Reporter: Turkey)RestMiddle East of the& North World 50Africa5019572011195019871982 0100 100 50EU27 Countries 0Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 11 / 38 12. Country Composition of Turkish Imports (%, 1960-2011) (Reporter: Turkey, Imports, %) 100% Austria90%Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa80%Russian Federation China70%Switzerland USA60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members)50% Germany40%30%20%10%0% 240 000 230 000 Austria 220 000 Rest of the W orld 210 000 Midd e East & North Africa l 200 000 190 000 Russian Federation 180 000 China 170 000 Sw itzer land 160 000 150 000 USA 140 000 EU12 (new members) 130 000 EU13 (old mem bers) 120 000 110 000 Germany 100 00019661970 1972 19761978 1980 1984 19921998 2000 20042006 20082010 19601962 1964 1968197419821986 198819901994 1996200290 00080 00070 00060 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 0 19601962 19641966 19681970 19721974 19761978 198019821990 20082010 19841986 1988 19921994 19961998 20002002 20042006 Austria is not a major source country for Turkeys imported goods from abroad. Again, the EU27 ist the Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org12 / 38 13. Changes in Country Composition of Turkish Imports (%, 1948-2011)100Country Shares in0 Turkish Imports (1948-2011) (Reporter: Turkey)Rest of theMiddle East World195750& North 502011Africa1989197519821952 0100 100 50EU27 Countries 0Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 13 / 38 14. Bilateral Relative Importance of Turkey and Austria as Trade Partners (as of annual averages, 2009-2011)Export Markets for Export Markets for Exporters to TurkeyExporters to Austria Turkey Austria Top Three Germany: % 7.5 Russian F.: % 13.9Germany: % 29.0 Germany: % 39.01 Countries & their Trade2UK: % 5.5 Germany: % 11.6Italy: % 7.0Italy: % 6.6 SharesItaly: % 4.3China: % 11.0 Switzerland: % 4.6 Switzerland: % 5.53 Partner Country Austria: top 30.Austria: top 28.Turkey: top 20.Turkey: top 20. and its Rank inimporting countryexporting country toimporting countryexporting country to Total Tradefrom Turkey Turkeyfrom AustriaAustria Trade Share of the Partner Country Austria: % 0.8Austria: % 0.8 Turkey: % 0.9Turkey: % 0.8 Total Share of the Countries beforeTop 29 importingTop 27 exporting Top 19 importingTop 19 exporting the Partnercountries share in countries share incountries share in countries share in Country Turkish Total Turkish TotalAustrian TotalAustrian TotalExports: % 79.3 Imports: % 81.8Exports: % 80.6 Imports: % 85.0 Reporter CountryTurkey TurkeyAustriaAustriaCommodity Coverage: All (Total). Country Coverage: All (243) Countries. Time Span: 2009-2011 (as annual averages).Source: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org 14 / 38 15. Commodity Composition of Austrian Exports & Imports to / from the World (%, 1988-2011)(Reporter: Austria, Exports, %)(Reporter: Austria, Imports, %) 100% 100% 0: Food and live animals 90%90% 1: Beverages and tobacco 80%80% 2: Crude materials, inedible, except fuels 70%70% 3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials 60%60% 4: Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes 50%50% 5: Chemicals and related products, n.e.s. 40%40% 6: Manufactured goods 30%30% 7: Machinery and transport 20% equipment20% 8: Miscellaneous manufactured 10% articles10% 9: Commodities and0% transactions, n.e.s. 0%198819891991199319941995199619971998200020012002200420072008200920102011199019921999200320052006 1988 1991 1996 2001 2002 2004 2007 2009 2010 1989 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 2005 2006 2008 2011 Austria mainly exports to and imports from the world machinery & transport equipment and manufactured goods.S ITCSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org 15 / 38 16. Commodity Composition of Turkish Exports & Imports to / from the World (%, 1989-2011) (Reporter: Turkey, Exports, %)(Reporter: Turkey, Imports, %)100%100% 0: Food and live animals90% 90% 1: Beverages and tobacco80% 80% 2: Crude materials, inedible, except fuels70% 70% 3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials60% 60% 4: Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes50% 50% 5: Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.40% 40% 6: Manufactured goods30% 30% 7: Machinery and transport equipment20% 20% 8: Miscellaneous manufactured articles10% 10% 9: Commodities and transactions, n.e.s. 0%0%19891990199219931996199920002002200320042006200720092010199119941995199719982001200520082011 1989 1991 1994 1998 2001 2003 2007 2010 1990 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1999 2000 2002 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 2011 Turkey mainly exports manufactured goods and machinery & transport equipment to the world, while it imports mainly machinery & transport equipment from the world. S ITCSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org16 / 38 17. Commodity Composition of Austrian Exportsto Turkey (% & bln. USD, 1988-2011) (Reporter: Austria, Exports, %)(Reporter: Austria, Exports, FOB, bln. USD)100%1.7 0: Food and live animals1.6 90% 1: Beverages and tobacco 1.51.4 80% 2: Crude materials, inedible,1.3 except fuels 70%1.2 3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and 1.1 related materials 60%1.0 4: Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes 0.9 50% 5: Chemicals and related 0.8 products, n.e.s. 0.7 40% 6: Manufactured goods0.6 30%0.5 7: Machinery and transport0.4 equipment 20%0.3 8: Miscellaneous manufactured articles0.2 10% 9: Commodities and 0.10% transactions, n.e.s. 0.0198819891990199219931994199519961997199819992000200220032004200520072008200920101991200120062011 1988 1992 1995 1998 2002 2006 2009 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1996 1997 1999 2000 2001 2003 2004 2005 2007 2008 2010 2011 Austrian exports to Turkey mainly consist of machinery and transport equipment (SITC-7). T urkish Data SIT CSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org 17 / 38 18. Commodity Composition of Austrian Imports from Turkey (% & bln. US$, 1988-2011)(Reporter: Austria, Imports, %) (Reporter: Austria, Imports, CIF, bln. USD) 100% 1.51.4 0: Food and live animals90%1.3 1: Beverages and tobacco80% 1.2 2: Crude materials, inedible,1.170%except fuels1.0 3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and60%related materials0.9 4: Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes 0.850% 5: Chemicals and related 0.7 products, n.e.s.40% 0.6 6: Manufactured goods0.530%7: Machinery and transport equipment0.420%8: Miscellaneous 0.3 manufactured articles0.210%9: Commodities and transactions, n.e.s. 0.1 0% 0.0198820071989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062008200920102011200520101988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420062007200820092011 Austrian imports from Turkey mainly consist of machinery and transport equipment (SITC-7) and manufactured goods (SITC-6).T urkish Data SIT CSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org18 / 38 19. Commodity Composition of Turkish Exports to Austria (% & bln. US$, 1989-2011) (Reporter: Turkey, Exports, %) (Reporter: Turkey, Exports, FOB, bln. USD)100%1.1 0: Food and live animals 90%1.0 1: Beverages and tobacco0.9 80% 2: Crude materials, inedible, except fuels 0.8 70% 3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials0.7 60% 4: Animal and vegetable oils,0.6 fats and waxes 50% 5: Chemicals and related 0.5 products, n.e.s. 40% 6: Manufactured goods0.4 30%0.3 7: Machinery and transport equipment 20%0.2 8: Miscellaneous 10% manufactured articles0.1 9: Commodities and0% transactions, n.e.s. 0.019891990199119921993199419951996199719982001200220042005200620082009201019992000200320072011 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2006 2008 2010 1989 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2004 2005 2007 2009 2011 Turkish data states that Turkey exports to Austria mainly SITC-7 and SITC-6 products.Austrian Data SIT CSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org19 / 38 20. Commodity Composition of Turkish Imports from Austria (% & bln. US$, 1989-2011)(Reporter: Turkey, Imports, %) (Reporter: Turkey, Imports, CIF, bln. USD) 100%1.80: Food and live animals 1.7 90% 1.61: Beverages and tobacco 1.5 80%2: Crude materials, inedible,1.4except fuels 1.3 70%3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and 1.2related materials 60% 1.14: Animal and vegetable oils, 1.0fats and waxes 50% 0.95: Chemicals and relatedproducts, n.e.s. 0.8 40%6: Manufactured goods0.7 0.6 30%7: Machinery and transport 0.5equipment 20% 0.48: Miscellaneous 0.3manufactured articles 10% 0.29: Commodities andtransactions, n.e.s. 0.10% 0.019892006200720101990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200820092011 2000 2002 2004 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Turkish imports from Austria mainly consist of machinery and transport equipment (SITC-7) and manufactured goods (SITC-6).Austrian Data SIT CSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org20 / 38 21. Commodity Structure of Turkish-Austrian Trade in Goods (%, 1989 & 2011)1989 (Reporter: Turkey) Imports of Austria 2011 (Reporter: Turkey) Imports of Austria Primary ManufacturingPrimary Manufacturing TotalTotalProducts ProductsProducts Products Primary Products37.837.8 Primary Products23.023.0Exports of Exports of TurkeyTurkey Manufactured Manufactured Products62.2 62.2 Products 77.0 77.0 Total 37.8 62.2 100.0Total 23.0 77.0 100.01989 (Reporter: Austria)Imports of Turkey2011 (Reporter: Austria)Imports of Turkey Primary ManufacturingPrimary Manufacturing TotalTotalProducts ProductsProducts Products Primary Products 9.2 9.2 Primary Products12.512.5Exports of Exports of AustriaAustria Manufactured Manufactured Products90.8 90.8 Products 87.5 87.5 Total9.2 90.8 100.0Total 12.5 87.5 100.0 Definitions for Product Groups: Primary Products: SITC = + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 68 Manufactured Products: SITC 5 + 6 - 68 + 7 + 8Source: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (SITC Rev. n 3), http://stats.oecd.org21 / 38 22. Trade Data Discrepancy betweenTurkey & Austria (%, 1948-2011)290275 Turkeys Exports to Austria / Austrias Imports from Turkey260 Turkeys Imports from Austria / Austrias Exports to TurkeyExports = Imports245230215 Turkeys Exports to Austria / Austrias Imports from TurkeyTurkeys Imports from Austria / Austrias Exports to Turkey200 Exports = Imports185170155140125110 95806550351952196819801984 1990199620081948 1950 19541956 19581960 19621964 1966 19701972 19741976 1978 1982 198619881992 1994 19982000 20022004 2006 2010 There are huge differences between the reported Turkish exports and Austrianimports data for trade between two countries: 1961-1980, 1981-1988 & 1995-2011. It cannot simply be explained by the FOB/CIF factor. Reporting / recording errors or lags? Re-exports? Needs to be investigated in detailSource: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org22 / 38 23. Comparison & Development of National Trade Sharesaccording to Turkish & Austrian Trade Data (%, 1948-2011)4.5 Share of Turkeys Exports to Austria in Turkeys Total Goods Exports to the World4.0Share of Turkeys Imports from Austria in Turkeys Total Goods Imports from the World Share of Austrias Exports to Turkey in Austrias Total Goods Exports to the World3.5Share of Austrias Imports form Turkey in Austrias Total Goods Imports from the World3.02.52.01.51.00.50.019741990194819501952195419561958196019621964196619681970197219761978198019821984198619881992199419961998200020022004200620082010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 23 / 38 24. Exports (FOB) to Imports (CIF) Ratio for Bilateral Trade between Turkey and Austria(%, 1948-2011)220 Austrian Exports to Imports Ratio for Trade with Turkey210 Turkish Exports to Imports Ratio for Trade with Austria200 Exports = Imports1901801701601501401301201101009080706050403019801948 19501952 19541956 19581960 19621964 19661968 19701972 19741976 1978 19821984 19861988 19901992 19941996 19982000 20022004 20062008 2010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org24 / 38 25. OECD-WTO Joint Database onTrade in Value Added (TiVA)[ Current Coverage: 2005, 2008, 2009; Planned Coverage: since 1995 ] What is Trade in Value Added?Trade in value-added describes a statistical approach used to estimate thesource(s) of value (by country and industry) that is added in producing goodsand services for export (and import). It recognises that growing global valuechains mean that a countrys exports increasingly rely on significantintermediate imports (and, so, value added by industries in upstreamcountries). For example, a motor vehicle exported by country A may requiresignificant parts, such as engines, seats etc produced in other countries. Inturn these countries will use intermediate inputs imported from othercountries, such as steel, rubber etc to produce the parts exported to A. TheTrade in value-added approach traces the value added by each industry andcountry in the production chain and allocates the value-added to these sourceindustries and countries.Source & More Info: http://www.oecd.org/trade/valueaddedDatabase: http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TIVA_OECD_WTOWTOs Trade Data Day: 16 January 2013, http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/miwi_e/tradedataday13_e/tradedataday13_e.htm Li nkages 25 / 38 26. Austrias Top 10 Export Commodity Groupsin Trade with Turkey (as annual averages, 2009-2011) A1B1 CD1D2A2B2General Share The Values and Shares of Share of Turkish Imports from Austria General ShareShare of of TurkeysShare of Top Three HS.. Exporter Countries to Turkey Austrias Top Ten Export HS.. Imports Turkeys HS..(2009-2011, Top Tenof AustriasAustrias HS.. Austrias HS.. (2009-2011, annual averages) Austrias Imports fromCommodity Groups, annual HS.. Exports Exports to Commodity Groups (CGs) from the Exports toCountryRank Austria inaverages) to the World inTurkey in according to the World in Turkey inRank as anTurkeys Total Austrias Total Austrias TotalHarmonized System (HS Turkeys Total Imports (CIF) Value of Turkeys Austrias TotalExporter toCGs Share inExports (FOB) Exports (FOB)Turkey 2007)Imports (CIF)Imports in theExports (FOB)from the World relevant CG from Turkeys Totalto the Worldto the Worldfrom theImports (CIF) from to Turkey (%)123(%)Austria (mln. USD,(%) (%)World (%)Austria (%) CIF) Reporter Country Turkey TurkeyTurkeyTurkeyAustria Austria AustriaTurkey Turkey TurkeyTurkey Germany China Italy HS84. NUCLEARTurkish HS84Turkish HS84 REACTORS, BOILERS,Share in Turkish Share in TurkishShare in TurkishTurkish HS84 Imports from Imports from1. MACHINERY AND11.50.2 291 20.019.7 17.9 0.2 HS84 ImportsGermany (mln. HS84 Imports China (mln. USD, HS84 Imports Imports from Italy 16. MECHANICAL APPLIANCES;(%)(%) (%)(mln. USD, CIF) USD, CIF) CIF) PARTS... 17.7 3 871 17.4 3 808 12.2 2 670China Germany Korea HS85. ELECTRICALShare in Turkish Turkish HS85 Share in Turkish Turkish HS85 Share in Turkish Turkish HS85 MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Imports from Imports from Imports from2. 7.70.1 143 9.8 10.8 10.5 0.1 HS85 ImportsChina (mln. USD,HS85 Imports Germany (mln.HS85 ImportsKorea (mln. USD, 20. AND PARTS THEREOF;(%) (%) (%) SOUND RECORDERS AND... CIF)USD, CIF) CIF)29.1 4 235 11.2 1 6255.7 835China IndonesiaIndia Turkish HS55 Turkish HS55 Share in TurkishShare in TurkishShare in TurkishTurkish HS553. HS55. MAN-MADE STAPLE Imports from Imports from 1.10.1 128 8.8 8.6 0.8 0.1 HS55 ImportsChina (mln. USD,HS55 Imports Indonesia (mln.HS55 Imports Imports from India 6. FIBRESTop 3 ? (%) (%) (%)(mln. USD, CIF)CIF)USD, CIF)14.930113.727711.4 231 Germany United States SwitzerlandTurkish HS30 Turkish HS30 Turkish HS30 Share in Turkish Share in TurkishShare in Turkish4. HS30. PHARMACEUTICAL Imports fromImports from the Imports from 2.30.1 120 8.2 3.6 5.4 0.0 HS30 ImportsGermany (mln. HS30 ImportsUS (mln. USD, HS30 Imports Switzerland (mln. 10. PRODUCTS(%)(%) (%) USD, CIF) CIF) USD, CIF)17.275414.1 621 10.9 479 Germany Saudi ArabiaBelgiumTurkish HS39Turkish HS39 Share in Turkish Share in Turkish Turkish HS39 Share in Turkish5. HS39. PLASTICS AND Imports from Imports from 5.20.093 6.3 6.4 4.6 0.1 HS39 ImportsGermany (mln. HS39 ImportsImports from SA HS39 ImportsBelgium (mln. 23. ARTICLES THEREOF(%)(%) (mln. USD, CIF) (%) USD, CIF)USD, CIF)13.1 1 279 10.1986 6.9 668 Germany United States Finland HS48. PAPER AND Share in TurkishTurkish HS48Share in Turkish Turkish HS48Share in TurkishTurkish HS48 PAPERBOARD; ARTICLES OF Imports fromImports from the Imports from6. 1.40.092 6.3 5.7 3.5 0.1 HS48 ImportsGermany (mln. HS48 ImportsUS (mln. USD, HS48 Imports Finland (mln. USD,9. PAPER PULP, OF PAPER OR (%)(%) (%) OF PAPERBOARD USD, CIF) CIF) CIF)17.8 4839.7263 9.3 253 Russian Federation UkraineUnited States Turkish HS72Turkish HS72 Turkish HS72 Share in Turkish Share in Turkish Share in Turkish Imports fromImports from Imports from the7. HS72. IRON AND STEEL8.40.090 6.2 6.2 4.5 0.1 HS72 Imports Russian Fed. HS72 Imports Ukraine (mln.HS72 Imports US (mln. USD, 28. (%)(%)(%)(mln. USD, CIF)USD, CIF)CIF)14.8 2 357 11.8 1 883 11.6 1 843 Germany France Spain HS87. VEHICLES OTHERShare in TurkishTurkish HS87Share in Turkish Turkish HS87 Share in Turkish Turkish HS87 THAN RAILWAY OR Imports fromImports fromImports from8. 7.00.072 4.9 5.2 8.6 0.0 HS87 ImportsGermany (mln. HS87 Imports France (mln. USD,HS87 ImportsSpain (mln. USD, 20. TRAMWAY ROLLING-STOCK,(%)(%)(%) AND PARTS AND...USD, CIF) CIF) CIF)31.0 4 089 11.6 1 5349.9 1 301China ItalyGermany Turkish HS73 Turkish HS73 Share in TurkishShare in TurkishTurkish HS73 Share in Turkish9. HS73. ARTICLES OF IRON Imports fromImports from 1.10.045 3.1 3.0 3.6 0.0 HS73 ImportsChina (mln. USD,HS73 Imports Imports from Italy HS73 ImportsGermany (mln. 10. OR STEEL(%) (%)(mln. USD, CIF) (%)CIF) USD, CIF)22.845715.631313.8277China Germany United States Turkish HS29Turkish HS29 Turkish HS29 Share in TurkishShare in TurkishShare in Turkish10. HS29. ORGANIC Imports from Imports fromImports from the 2.30.042 2.9 2.4 1.1 0.0 HS29 ImportsChina (mln. USD,HS29 Imports Germany (mln.HS29 Imports US (mln. USD, 22. CHEMICALS (%) (%) (%)CIF)USD, CIF) CIF)10.0440 9.9438 9.5 418 Top 10 Commodity48.10.61 11576.471.7 60.4 0.7 GroupsSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (HS 2007), http://stats.oecd.org 26 / 38 27. Austrias Top Three Export Commodity Groups in Trade with Turkey (as annual averages, 2009-2011)A1 B1 CD1D2A2B2General Share The Values and Shares of Share of Turkish Imports from Austria General ShareShare of of TurkeysShare of Austrias Top Ten Export HS.. Imports Turkeys HS..(2009-2011, Top TenAustrias HS.. of AustriasAustrias HS..Austrias Imports fromCommodity Groups, annual HS.. Exports Exports to Commodity Groups (CGs) from the Exports to CountryRank Austria inaverages) to the World inTurkey in according to the World in Turkey in Rank as anTurkeys Total Austrias Total Austrias TotalHarmonized System (HS Turkeys Total Imports (CIF) Value of Turkeys Austrias Total Exporter toCGs Share inExports (FOB) Exports (FOB) Turkey 2007)Imports (CIF)Imports in theExports (FOB)from the World relevant CG from Turkeys Totalto the Worldto the Worldfrom theImports (CIF) from to Turkey (%)(%)Austria (mln. USD,(%) (%)World (%)Austria (%) CIF)Reporter CountryTurkeyTurkeyTurkeyTurkeyAustriaAustria Austria Turkey HS84. NUCLEAR REACTORS, BOILERS, MACHINERY AND1.11.5 0.2291 20.019.7 17.9 0.2 16. MECHANICAL APPLIANCES; PARTS... HS85. ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT2. 7.7 0.11439.810.8 10.5 0.1 20. AND PARTS THEREOF; SOUND RECORDERS AND...3. HS55. MAN-MADE STAPLE 1.1 0.11288.8 8.60.8 0.16. FIBRES Top 10 Commodity48.1 0.6 1 11576.471.7 60.4 0.7 GroupsSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (HS 2007), http://stats.oecd.org 27 / 38 28. Turkeys Top 10 Export Commodity Groups in Trade with Austria (as annual averages, 2009-2011) A1B1 CD1 D2A2 B2 General Share The Values and Shares of Share ofAustrian Imports from Turkey General ShareShare ofof AustriasShare of Top Three HS.. Exporter Countries to Austria Turkeys Top Ten Export HS.. Imports Austrias HS..(2009-2011, Top TenTurkeys HS..of Turkeys Turkeys HS..(2009-2011, annual averages)Turkeys Imports from Commodity Groups, annual HS.. Exports Exports to Commodity Groups (CGs)from theExports to CountryRank Turkey in averages)to the World in Austria in according to theWorld inAustria inRank as anAustrias Total Turkeys TotalTurkeys TotalHarmonized System (HS Austrias Total Imports (CIF) Value of Austrias CGs Share in Turkeys TotalExporter toExports (FOB) Exports (FOB)Austria2007)Imports (CIF)Imports in the Exports (FOB)from the World relevant CG from Austrias Totalto the Worldto the World from the Imports (CIF) from to Austria (%)1 2 3(%) Turkey (mln. USD, (%) (%) World (%) Turkey (%) CIF) Reporter Country AustriaAustria Austria Austria Turkey TurkeyTurkey Austria Austria Austria AustriaGermanyChina Turkey HS61. ARTICLES OFShare in Austrian HS61Share inAustrian HS61 Share in Austrian HS61 APPAREL AND CLOTHING Imports fromImports fromImports from1. 1.50.1 230 18.58.96.6 0.1 Austrian HS61 Germany (mln. Austrian HS61 China (mln. USD,Austrian HS61Turkey (mln. USD,3. ACCESSORIES, KNITTED ORImports (%) Imports (%)Imports (%)USD, CIF)CIF) CIF) CROCHETED 22.5 53820.4 486 9.6230Germany ItalyChina HS84. NUCLEAR Austrian HS84 Austrian HS84 REACTORS, BOILERS, Share inImports fromShare in Austrian HS84 Share in Imports from2. MACHINERY AND12.80.1 139 11.1 10.28.3 0.1 Austrian HS84 Germany (mln. Austrian HS84 Imports from Italy Austrian HS84China (mln. USD,19. MECHANICAL APPLIANCES; Imports (%) Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)Imports (%)USD, CIF) CIF) PARTS...48.69 7187.61 5135.6 1 118Germany ItalyFrance HS87. VEHICLES OTHER Share in Austrian HS87Share in Austrian HS87 Share inAustrian HS87 THAN RAILWAY ORImports fromImports from3. 9.80.1 104 8.415.4 11.9 0.1 Austrian HS87 Germany (mln. Austrian HS87 Imports from Italy Austrian HS87France (mln. USD, 18. Top 3 ? TRAMWAY ROLLING-STOCK, Imports (%) Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)Imports (%)USD, CIF)CIF) AND PARTS AND... 45.26 9146.5 997 6.5993GermanyChinaItaly HS62. ARTICLES OFShare in Austrian HS62Share inAustrian HS62 Share in Austrian HS62 APPAREL AND CLOTHING Imports fromImports from4. 1.80.1 100 8.0 3.64.0 0.0 Austrian HS62 Germany (mln. Austrian HS62 China (mln. USD,Austrian HS62 Imports from Italy 4. ACCESSORIES, NOT KNITTED Imports (%) Imports (%)Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)USD, CIF)CIF) OR CROCHETED 24.0 65923.8 652 7.7211GermanyChinaCzech Republic HS85. ELECTRICAL Share in Austrian HS85Share inAustrian HS85 Share in Austrian HS85 MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTImports fromImports from Imports from5. 9.10.076 6.1 5.86.6 0.0 Austrian HS85 Germany (mln. Austrian HS85 China (mln. USD,Austrian HS85Czech Rep. (mln.27. AND PARTS THEREOF; Imports (%) Imports (%)Imports (%)USD, CIF)CIF)USD, CIF) SOUND RECORDERS AND... 34.4 4 89813.0 1 849 4.6658Germany Italy Czech Republic Austrian HS73 Austrian HS73 Austrian HS73Share inShare in Share in6. HS73. ARTICLES OF IRONImports fromImports from Imports from 2.80.063 5.1 6.94.3 0.1 Austrian HS73 Germany (mln. Austrian HS73 ItalyS (mln. USD,Austrian HS73Czech Rep. (mln.11. OR STEEL Imports (%) Imports (%)Imports (%)USD, CIF) CIF) USD, CIF) 47.6 2 07810.0 435 6.0260Germany ItalyNetherlands HS20. PREPARATIONS OFShare in Austrian HS20Share in Austrian HS20 Share in Austrian HS20 VEGETABLES, FRUIT, NUTSImports fromImports from7. 0.50.058 4.6 5.61.3 0.0 Austrian HS20 Germany (mln. Austrian HS20 Imports from Italy Austrian HS20Netherlands (mln.5. OR OTHER PARTS OFImports (%) Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)Imports (%)USD, CIF) USD, CIF) PLANTS 22.6 16915.2 114 10.478GermanyChina Turkey HS63. OTHER MADE UPShare in Austrian HS63Share inAustrian HS63 Share in Austrian HS63 TEXTILE ARTICLES; SETS;Imports fromImports fromImports from8. 0.30.057 4.6 4.51.6 0.0 Austrian HS63 Germany (mln. Austrian HS63 China (mln. USD,Austrian HS63Turkey (mln. USD,3. WORN CLOTHING AND WORN Imports (%) Imports (%)Imports (%)USD, CIF)CIF) CIF) TEXTILE... 37.8 20316.488 10.657Germany ItalyFrance Austrian HS76Austrian HS76Share inShare in Austrian HS76 Share in9. HS76. ALUMINUM ANDImports fromImports from 2.00.046 3.7 4.31.6 0.0 Austrian HS76 Germany (mln. Austrian HS76 Imports from Italy Austrian HS76France (mln. USD, 17. ARTICLES THEREOF Imports (%) Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)Imports (%)USD, CIF)CIF) 30.7 963 6.9 218 6.1192Germany Italy Czech Republic Austrian HS40 Austrian HS40Share inShare in Austrian HS40 Share in10. HS40. RUBBER ANDImports from Imports from 1.20.043 3.4 3.21.7 0.0 Austrian HS40 Germany (mln. Austrian HS40 Imports from Italy Austrian HS40Czech Rep. (mln. 8. ARTICLES THEREOF Imports (%) Imports (%) (mln. USD, CIF)Imports (%)USD, CIF)USD, CIF) 40.3 747 6.1 112 5.8107 Top 10 Commodity41.70.6 916 73.7 68.4 47.8 0.5 GroupsSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (HS 2007), http://stats.oecd.org 28 / 38 29. Turkeys Top Three Export Commodity Groupsin Trade with Austria (as annual averages, 2009-2011)A1B1C D1 D2A2 B2 General ShareThe Values and Shares ofShare ofAustrian Imports from Turkey General ShareShare ofof Austrias Share of Turkeys Top Ten Export HS.. Imports Austrias HS.. (2009-2011, Top TenTurkeys HS.. of Turkeys Turkeys HS.. TurkeysImports from Commodity Groups, annual HS.. Exports Exports toCommodity Groups from the Exports to CountryRankTurkey in averages)to the World inAustria in(CGs) according to the World in Austria inRank as an Austrias Total Turkeys TotalTurkeys Total Harmonized System (HS Austrias Total Imports (CIF) Value of Austrias Turkeys TotalExporter to CGs Share in Exports (FOB) Exports (FOB) Austria2007)Imports (CIF) Imports in the Exports (FOB) from the World relevant CG from Austrias Totalto the Worldto the World from theImports (CIF) from to Austria (%) (%) Turkey (mln. USD, (%) (%) World (%)Turkey (%)CIF) Reporter Country Austria Austria Austria Austria Turkey TurkeyTurkey Austria HS61. ARTICLES OF APPAREL AND CLOTHING1.1.50.1 230 18.58.96.6 0.1 3. ACCESSORIES, KNITTED OR CROCHETED HS84. NUCLEAR REACTORS, BOILERS,2. MACHINERY AND 12.80.1 139 11.1 10.28.3 0.119. MECHANICAL APPLIANCES; PARTS... HS87. VEHICLES OTHER THAN RAILWAY OR3.9.80.1 104 8.415.411.90.118. TRAMWAY ROLLING-STOCK, AND PARTS AND... Top 10 Commodity 41.70.6 916 73.7 68.447.80.5 GroupsSource: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Trade by Commodity Statistics (HS 2007), http://stats.oecd.org29 / 38 30. Empirical Observations on Turkish-AustrianTrade in Goods: Major Conclusions? Turkeys and Austrias shares in global trade in goods haveincreased between 1980 and 2011. However they are still not major players/exporters in worldgoods markets. To a large extent, the trade between Turkey and Austriaconsists of two-way trade of machinery and transportequipment (SITC-7) and manufactured goods (SITC-6). Moreover, Turkey and Austria are in general not unignorabletrade partners for each other. Possible reasons to think that this fact will not change easily ina short period of time: Austrias orientation towards new EU member countries (EU12) to makemore trade since early 1990s. Turkeys trade orientation towards MENA region countries & RussianFederation since early 2000s. Back to Question?30 / 38 31. What then may occur, or is there still room for politics/initiatives to promote bilateral trade? Positive indirect effects of labor movements and/orNoimmigrants on Turkish exports to Austria? Possible effects of Austrian FDIs in Turkey onbilateral trade between Turkey and Austria: Substitution of existing trade with production in Turkey:? negative effects? Increases in exports of intermediate goods from Austria to? Turkey: positive effects? Austria and Turkey both have free market economies,and producers and exporters in both countries arefree to choose where to export. Both countries are WTO members too. So, should we wait and see what happens? Or?31 / 38 32. Economic Linkages between Austria & Turkey:International Migration (persons, 1990-2010)Inflows of foreign Outflows ofStock of foreign- Stock of foreign Stock of foreignpopulation byforeign population born populationpopulation bylabour by Variable nationalityby nationality by country of nationalitynationalitybirthCountry of origin Austria TurkeyAustriaTurkey Austria TurkeyAustriaTurkeyAustriaTurkeyCountry TurkeyAustria Turkey AustriaTurkeyAustria Turkey Austria Turkey Austria 1990.... .. ..6 979 .. .... .. .. 1991.... .. ...... .... .. .. 1992.... .. ...... .... .. .. 1993.... .. ...... .... .. .. 1994.... .. ...... .... .. 53 973 1995332 .. .. ...... ..136 426.. 54 684 1996489 5 939.. 4 871 .... ..135 044.. 53 551 1997657 6 236.. 4 459 .... ..133 037.. 52 820 1998669 5 909.. 3 950 ..118 800..132 233.. 54 248 1999..7 296.. 3 797 ..124 500..129 631.. 55 628 2000..7 096.. 3 70214 335 110 1006 143 127 264.. 57 128 2001..7 764.. 3 693 ..126 828..127 147.. 56 831 2002.. 11 277.. 2 942 ..135 153..127 156.. 56 285 2003.. 10 411.. 3 041 ..142 653..123 043.. 55 689 2004..8 249.. 3 037 ..147 911..116 544.. 54 588 2005..7 727.. 2 828 ..152 499..113 068.. 53 480 2006..4 867.. 2 938 ..154 088..108 189.. 62 046 2007..5 234.. 2 991 ..155 941..109 179.. 62 409 2008..4 996.. 2 863 ..157 750..110 678.. 62 871 2009..4 751.. 2 997 ..159 038..112 150.. 61 366 2010139 4 338.. 2 963 ..159 891..113 457.. ..Source: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Migration Database, http://stats.oecd.org, March 1, 2013 32 / 38 33. Economic Linkages between Austria & Turkey:International Migration Turkish Day in Vienna, Austria (2009) Labor mobility between Turkey and Austria is functioningto a great extent in a one-way direction: from TR to A. OECDs International Migration Database shows that thestock of Turkish population in Austria is more than 113thousand persons as of 2010.33 / 38 34. Turkish Immigrants in Selected Countries (2010) 2.1 2.0 GermanyStock of 1.9 Immigrant 1.8Population withRatio of Immigrant Population with Turkish Nationality Host Country 1.7Turkish 1.6Nationality 1.5(persons, 2010) to the Local Population (%, 2010) 1.4AustriaGermany 1 629 480 1.3 France220 089 1.2 Austria 113 457 1.1 1.0 Netherlands88 028 0.9 Switzerland Switzerland70 642 0.8 Untd. Kingdom45 000 0.7 Belgium39 551 0.6 Denmark Denmark29 150 0.5Netherlands Italy19 068 0.4 FranceSweden 11 902 0.3 Belgium 0.2 Sweden 0.1UK 0.0 Italy100 000 400 000 500 000 600 000 700 000 800 000 900 000 1 000 000 1 100 000 1 200 000 1 300 000 1 400 000 1 500 000 1 600 000 1 700 000 200 000 300 000Stock of Immigrant Population with Turkish Nationality (persons, 2010)Source: OECD.Stat, Aykut Kibritiolus calculations.34 / 38 35. Turkish Immigrants & Turkish Exports (2010) 12 Germany Stock of 11Immigrant 10 Population with Host Country Turkish9Nationality Turkish Exports (billions of USD, 2010) UK(persons, 2010)8 Germany1 629 4807France 220 089ItalyAustria113 4576France Netherlands88 0285Switzerland70 642 Untd. Kingdom45 0004 Belgium39 5513 Denmark29 150 Netherlands Italy19 0682Switzerland Sweden 11 902SwedenBelgium1AustriaDenmark0No 1 000 000 500 000 600 000 800 000 1 100 000 1 200 000 1 300 000 1 400 000 1 500 000 1 600 000 1 700 000 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 700 000 900 000export effects?Stock of Immigrant Population with Turkish Nationality (persons, 2010)Source: OECD.Stat, Aykut Kibritiolus calculations.35 / 38 36. Economic Linkages between Austria & Turkey: Foreign Direct Investments (mln. US$, 1980-2010) Currency US dollars, millions Reporting countryAustria Turkey Partner countryTurkey TOTAL WORLDAustriaTOTAL WORLDType of FDIInwardOutwardInward OutwardInwardOutwardInwardOutward1985.. .. .. .... .... ..1986.. 3.24 994.01 219.4 .. .... ..1987.. 2.86 700.11 335.4 .. .... ..1988.. 2.66 699.11 360.8 .. .... ..19890.012.9 9 312.42 878.2 .. .... ..19900.014.911 097.34 747.0 .. .... ..19910.024.313 172.75 993.7 .. .... ..19920.036.413 179.46 583.9 .. .... ..1993.. 40.913 990.27 974.5 .. .... ..1994.. 24.716 353.59 514.0 .. .... ..1995.. 4.9 21 362.2 11 831.5 .. .... ..1996.. 2.3 21 297.3 13 060.1 .. .... ..1997.. 2.5 21 323.4 14 010.5 .. .... ..1998.. 5.8 24 960.1 17 468.2 .. .... ..1999.. 13.324 372.7 19 126.9 .. .... ..200034.3 8.1 31 164.8 24 820.6 34.0 .. 19 209.03 668.0200135.8 4.3 34 999.4 28 510.7 16.023.019 677.04 581.0200218.0 - 25.344 895.5 42 484.7 21.046.018 792.05 847.0200358.1 - 33.057 636.4 55 961.4 51.056.033 533.06 138.0200482.8 79.070 713.7 69 806.0 85.078.038 522.07 060.0200577.7 73.882 551.4 71 806.9159.085.071 297.08 315.02006 170.5529.9 111 072.3105 696.6569.074.095 089.08 866.02007 238.3 3 863.2162 649.1148 821.1 4 393.0104.0 153 950.0 12 210.02008 137.8 2 622.4148 124.5148 731.4 2 296.0267.080 227.0 17 846.02009 195.9 4 143.5172 649.5163 243.0 6 031.0305.0 143 723.0 22 250.02010 224.5 5 859.2158 432.7176 870.711 003.0368.0 186 971.0 22 509.02011 191.7 6 971.5153 233.2198 910.610 803.0 54.0 140 043.0 26 398.0Source: OECD.Stat, Dataset: FDI positions by partner country, http://stats.oecd.org, March 1, 2013 back36 / 38 37. Still Room for Politics, or Political Initiatives? High level political initiativesfrom both sides to fosterPresident Gls Austria visit to boost economic relationshiptrade in goods between twocountries may be key tosucceed in increasing thetrade volume between twocountries.Vienna, May 2011 Governmental organizations and platforms to strengthen theeconomic linkages between Turkey and Austria? Institutions? Transition to green economy: Joint green investments? Joint green R&D efforts?37 / 38 38. Organizations & Platforms to StrengthenEconomic Linkages between Turkey and Austria?Austrian Business Agency - Invest in Austriahttp://investinaustria.atAdvantage Austriahttp://www.advantageaustria.org/tr/Oesterreich-in-Tuerkei.tr.htmlhracat Bilgi Platformu Turkey Contact Pointhttp://www.ibp.gov.tr - http://www.tcp.gov.trInvest in Turkey (Investment Support and Promotion Agency)http://www.invest.gov.tr back 38 / 38 39. AppendixThis file is downloadable at: http://kibritcioglu.com/iktisat/oenb-20130318.html 39 / 38 40. Turkey AustriaSource: WTO Statistics Database (SDB), http://stat.wto.org, September 2012 40 / 38 41. TurkeySource: WTO Statistics Database (SDB), http://stat.wto.org, September 2012 41 / 38 42. AustriaSource: WTO Statistics Database (SDB), http://stat.wto.org, September 2012 42 / 38 43. SITC, Revision 3 00: Live animals other than animals of division 030: Food and live animals 01: Meat and meat preparations 02: Dairy products and birds eggs 03: Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and preparations thereof 04: Cereals and cereal preparations 05: Vegetables and fruits 06: Sugar, sugar preparations and honey 07: Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures thereof 08: Feedstuff for animals (excluding unmilled cereals) 09: Miscellaneous edible products and preparations 11: Beverages1: Beverages and tobacco 12: Tobacco and tobacco manufactures 21: Hides, skins and furskins, raw2: Crude materials, inedible, except 22: Oil seeds and oleaginous fruitsfuels23: Crude rubber (including synthetic and reclaimed) 24: Cork and wood 25: Pulp and waste paper 26: Textiles fibres and their wastes 27: Crude fertilizers other than division 56, and crude minerals 28: Metalliferous ores and metal scrap 29: Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s. 32: Coal, coke and briquettes3: Mineral fuels, lubricants and 33: Petroleum, petroleum products and related materialsrelated materials34: Gas, natural and manufactured 35: Electric current 41: Animal oils and fats4: Animal and vegetable oils, fats 42: Fixed vegetable oils and fats, crude, refined or fractionatedand waxes43: Processed Animal and vegetable oils and fats 51: Organic chemicals5: Chemicals and related products, 52: Inorganic chemicalsn.e.s. 53: Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials 54: Medicinal and pharmaceutical products 61: Leather, leather manufactures and dressed furskins6: Manufactured goods 62: Rubber manufactures, n.e.s. 63: Cork and wood manufactures (excluding furniture) 64: Paper and paper manufactures 65: Textile yarn and related products 66: Non metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s. 67: Iron and steel 68: Non-ferrous metals 69: Manufactures of metal, n.e.s. 71: Power generating machinery and equipment7: Machinery and transport 72: Specialised machineryequipment73: Metal working machinery 74: Other industrial machinery and parts 75: Office machines and automatic data processing machines 76: Telecommunication and sound recording apparatus 77: Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, n.e.s. 78: Road vehicles 79: Other transport equipment 81: Prefabricated buildings, sanitary, heating and lighting fixtures, n.e.s.8: Miscellaneous manufactured 82: Furniture and parts thereofarticles 83: Travel goods, handbags, etc. 84: Articles of apparel & clothing accessories 85: Footwear 87: Professional and scientific instruments, n.e.s. 88: Photo apparatus, optical goods, watches and clocksback 89: Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. 91: Postal packages not classified according to kind9: Commodities and transactions, 93: Special transactions & commodities not classifiedn.e.s. 96: Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender 97: Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores & concentrates)43 / 38 44. Country Composition of Austrian Exports (millions of US Dollars, FOB, 1960-2011) 190 000 Turkey 180 000 Rest of the World 170 000 160 000 Middle East & North Africa 150 000 Russian Federation 140 000 China 130 000 Switzerland 120 000 USA 110 000 EU12 (new members) 100 000 EU13 (old members)90 000 Germany80 00070 00060 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 0 19601962 19641966 196819701974 19761978 19801982 19841986 19881990 19921994 19961998 20002002 20042006 20082010 1972 100% Turkey Rest of the World 90% Middle East & North Africa 80% Russian Federation China 70% Switzerland USA 60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members) 50% Germ any 40% 30% 20% 10%0%19601962196419661968197019721974197619781980198219841986198819901992199419961998200020022004200620082010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 44 / 38 45. Country Composition of Austrian Imports(millions of US Dollars, CIF, 1960-2011) 190 000 Turkey 180 000 Rest of the World 170 000 160 000 Middle East & North Africa 150 000 Russian Federation 140 000 China 130 000 Switzerland 120 000 USA 110 000 EU12 (new members) 100 000 EU13 (old members)90 000 Germany80 00070 00060 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 0 19601962 19681974 19801982 19841986 1992 19961998 2000 200420062010 196419661970 1972 19761978 1988199019942002 2008 100% Turkey 90% Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa 80% Russian Federation China 70% Switzerland USA 60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members) 50% Germany 40% 30% 20% 10%0%19601964197019801962196619681972197419761978198219841986198819901992199419961998200020022004200620082010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 45 / 38 46. Country Composition of Turkish Exports (millions of US Dollars, FOB, 1960-2011) 140 000 Austria 130 000 Rest of the World 120 000 Middle East & North Africa 110 000 Russian Federation China 100 000 Switzerland90 000 USA80 000 EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members)70 000 Germany60 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 19601962 19681974 19801982 19841986 1992 19961998 2000 200420062010 196419661970 1972 19761978 1988199019942002 2008 100% Austria 90% Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa 80% Russian Federation China 70% Switzerland USA 60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members) 50% Germany 40% 30% 20% 10%0%19601964197019801962196619681972197419761978198219841986198819901992199419961998200020022004200620082010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 46 / 38 47. Country Composition of Turkish Imports(millions of US Dollars, CIF, 1960-2011) 240 000 230 000 Austria 220 000 Rest of the World 210 000 Middle East & North Africa 200 000 190 000 Russian Federation 180 000 China 170 000 Switzerland 160 000 150 000 USA 140 000 EU12 (new members) 130 000 EU13 (old members) 120 000 110 000 Germany 100 00090 00080 00070 00060 00050 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 0 19641966 19761978 1980 1992199419982006 19601962 19681970 197219741982 19841986 19881990 1996 20002002 2004 20082010 100% Austria 90% Rest of the World Middle East & North Africa 80% Russian Federation China 70% Switzerland USA 60% EU12 (new members) EU13 (old members) 50% Germany 40% 30% 20% 10%0%19601964197019801962196619681972197419761978198219841986198819901992199419961998200020022004200620082010Source: IMF eLibrary, Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) Database, http://elibrary-data.imf.org 47 / 38 48. International Migration betweenAustria & Turkey (1980-2010) Gender Total Inflows of foreign Outflows ofInflows of asylum Stock of foreign- Stock of foreign Acquisition ofInflows of foreignInflows of Stock of foreign- Stock of foreignStatus changes of population byforeign population seekers byborn populationpopulation by nationality byworkers by seasonal foreign born labour bylabour byinternationalVariable nationalityby nationality nationality by country of nationalitycountry of former nationalityworkers bycountry of birthnationality students birth nationalitynationality Country of origin Austria TurkeyAustriaTurkeyAustriaTurkeyAustria TurkeyAustriaTurkeyAustriaTurkey Austria Turkey AustriaTurkey Austria TurkeyAustriaTurkey Austria TurkeyCountry Turkey Austria Turkey Austria Turkey Austria TurkeyAustria Turkey Austria Turkey AustriaTurkeyAustriaTurkey AustriaTurkeyAustria Turkey AustriaTurkeyAustria Year i i i i iii i i i ii 1980 .... .... ..120 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1981 .... .... .. 35 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1982 .... .... .. 54 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1983 .... .... .. 39 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1984 .... .... .. 31 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1985 .... .... .. 56 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1986 .... .... ..163 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1987 .... .... ..408 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1988 .... .... ..644 000 .... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1989 .... .... .. 3 263 000.... .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1990 .... .... .. 1 862 0006 979 .. .... .. .... .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1991 .... .... .. 2 252 000.... .... ..1 801 000.. .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1992 .... .... .. 1 251 000.... .... ..1 987 000.. .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1993 .... .... ..342 000 .... .... ..2 686 000.. .. .. ...... .. .... .. 1994 .... .... ..362 000 .... .... ..3 377 000.. .. .. ...... .. 53 973.. .. 1995 332 .. .... ..509 000 .... ..136 426..3 201 000.. .. .. ...... .. 54 684.. .. 1996 489 5 939..4 871..477 000 .... ..135 044..7 492 000.. .. .. ...... .. 53 551.. .. 1997 657 6 236..4 459..340 000 .... ..133 037..5 064 000.. .. .. ...... .. 52 820.. .. 1998 669 5 909..3 950..210 000 ..118 800..132 233..5 664 000.. .. .. ...... .. 54 248.. .. 1999 ..7 296..3 797..335 000 ..124 500..129 631.. 10 324 000.. .. .. ...... .. 55 628.. .. 2000 ..7 096..3 702..592 00014 335 110 1006 143 127 264..6 720 000.. .. .. ...... .. 57 128.. .. 2001 ..7 764..3 693.. 1 868 000..126 828..127 147.. 10 046 000.. .. .. ...... .. 56 831.. .. 2002 .. 11 277..2 942.. 3 561 000..135 153..127 1564 00012 623 000.. .. .. ...... .. 56 285.. .. 2003 .. 10 411..3 041.. 2 854 000..142 653..123 0431 00013 665 000.. .. .. ...... .. 55 689.. .. 2004 ..8 249..3 037.. 1 114 000..147 911..116 5442 00013 004 000.. .. .. .... 79 299.. 54 588.. .. 2005 ..7 727..2 828.. 1 064 000..152 499..113 0685 000 9 545 000.. .. .. .... 82 338.. 53 480.. .. 2006 ..4 867..2 938..668 000 ..154 088..108 1898 000 7 542 000.. .. .. .... 84 271.. 62 046.. .. 2007 ..5 234..2 991..659 000 ..155 941..109 179..2 076 000.. .. .. .... 91 300.. 62 409.. .. 2008 ..4 996..2 863..417 000 ..157 750..110 678..1 664 000.. .. .. .... 96 683.. 62 871.. .. 2009 ..4 751..2 997..554 000 ..159 038..112 150..1 242 000.. .. .. .... 88 809.. 61 366.. .. 2010 139 4 338..2 963..369 000 ..159 891..113 457.. 937 000 .. .. .. ...... .. .... ..Source: OECD.Stat, Dataset: International Migration Database, http://stats.oecd.org, March 1, 201348 / 38