Solution properties Definitions –Solution –Solvent...

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Transcript of Solution properties Definitions –Solution –Solvent...

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Slide 2 Solution properties Definitions Solution Solvent Solute Solubility Saturated solution Concentration expression Matter Solid, liquid, gas Vapor pressure Vapor pressure of liquid Escaping tendency Ideal solution Rauolts law Real solution Slide 3 Solution Mixture of two or more components that form a single phase, homogeneous down to the molecular level Slide 4 Solvent Component that determines the phase of the solution constitutes the largest proportion of the system Slide 5 Solute dispersed as molecules or Ions throughout the solvent; i.e. dissolved in the solvent Slide 6 Slide 7 Solubility Is the amount of solute that passes into solution when an equilibrium is established between the solution and excess, i.e. undissolved substance Slide 8 Slide 9 Saturated solution The solution obtained when maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solvent under given conditions Slide 10 Methods of Expressing Concentration of solutions Quantity per quantity Percentage (%) Parts (p) Molarity Molality Mole Fraction Milliequivalents & Normal Solutions Slide 11 Methods of Expressing Concentration 1.Quantity per quantity: Concentrations are often expressed simply as the weight or volume of solute that is contained in a given weight or volume of the solution. w/v (majority), w/w, v/v Slide 12 Methods of Expressing Concentration Percentage (%) % w/v = weight of solute/volume of solution x 100 % w/w = weight of solute/weight of solution x 100 % v/v = volume of solute/volume of solution x 100 Slide 13 3.Parts (p): The number of 'parts' of solute dissolved in a stated number of 'parts' of solution. solid in a liquid parts by weight (g) of solid in parts by volume (ml) of solution liquids in liquids parts by volume of solute in parts by volume of solution gases in liquids parts by weight of gas in parts by weight of solution. Slide 14 4.Molarity: the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution. unit of molarity is mol/l. Molar concentration and its symbol M describe the molarity of a solution Nr. of moles = wt / mol.wt 1 M = mol wt / liter Slide 15 5.Molality: number of moles of solute divided by the mass of the solvent, i.e. mol/kg. Slide 16 6.Mole Fraction: number of moles of solute divided by the total number of moles of solute and solvent, i.e mole fraction of solute= n1 and n2: numbers of moles of solute and solvent, respectively. Slide 17 7.Milliequivalents & Normal Solutions: 1 millimole = one thousandth of a mole 1 milliequivalent (mEq) of an ion [in case of electrolytes] one thousandth of the gram equivalent of the ion the ionic weight in grams divided by the valency of the ion. Slide 18 Normality The equivalent weight of the solute, expressed in grams, in 1 liter of solution. 1 N = mol.wt. / valency / liter Slide 19 Solution properties Definitions Solution Solvent Solute Solubility Saturated solution Concentration expression Matter Vapor pressure Vapor pressure of liquid Ideal solution rauolts law Real solution Slide 20 Kinetic theory of matter Slide 21 gaseous state: The thermal motions of molecules of a substance can overcome the attractive forces that exist between the molecules, molecules undergo a completely random movement within the confines of the container Slide 22 Kinetic theory of matter liquid state: Van der Waals forces of attraction, lead to some degree of coherence between the molecules of liquids. Consequently, liquids occupy a definite volume. Slide 23 Kinetic theory of matter solid state: The intermolecular forces are so strong that a high of order, hardly influenced by thermal motions Slide 24 Vapor pressure Slide 25 Although solids and liquids are condensed systems with cohering molecules some of the surface molecules in these systems will occasionally acquire sufficient energy to overcome the attractive forces exerted by adjacent molecules and so escape from the surface to form a vaporous phase. Slide 26 Vapor pressure Definition The pressure exerted by the vapor at equilibrium is referred to as the vapor pressure of the substance. Slide 27 Vapor pressure All condensed systems have the inherent ability to give rise to a vapor pressure. Slide 28 Vapor pressure surface loss of vapor from liquids by the process of evaporation is more common than surface loss of vapor from solids via sublimation. Slide 29 Vapor pressure However, the vapor pressures exerted by solids are usually much lower than those exerted by liquids, why? because the intermolecular forces in solids are stronger than those in liquids so that the escaping tendency for surface molecules is higher in liquids. Slide 30 Solution properties Definitions Solution Solvent Solute Solubility Saturated solution Concentration expression Matter Solid, liquid, gas Vapor pressure definition Vapor pressure of liquid Tendency of escaping Ideal solution rauolts law Real solution Slide 31 Vapor pressure of liquid In the case of a liquid solvent containing a dissolved solute (solution): molecules of both solvent and solute may show a tendency to escape from the surface and so contribute to the vapor pressure. Slide 32 Vapor pressure of liquid The relative tendencies to escape will depend: on the numbers of the different molecules in the surface of the solution on the strengths of the attractive forces between adjacent solvent molecules on the strengths of the attractive forces between solute and solvent molecules Slide 33 The intermolecular forces between solid and liquid molecules are relatively strong such solute molecules do not generally escape from the surface of a solution and contribute to the vapor pressure. Slide 34 The solute is non-volatile so the vapor pressure is due to the dynamic equilibrium between the rates of evaporation and condensation of solvent molecules in the solution. Slide 35 In a mixture of miscible liquids, i.e. a liquid in liquid solution, the molecules of both components are likely to evaporate and contribute to the overall vapor pressure exerted by the solution. Slide 36 Ideal solutions; Raoult's Law: Francois Marie Raoult (1830 - 1901) Slide 37 Ideal solutions; Raoult's Law: In the model it is assumed that the strengths of all intermolecular forces are identical, i.e. solvent-solvent, solute- solvent and solute-solute interactions are the same and are equal to the strength of the intermolecular interactions in the pure solvent or pure solute. Slide 38 Because of this equality the tendencies of solute and solvent molecules to escape from the surface of the solution will be determined only by their relative numbers in the surface. Since a solution is homogeneous by definition then the relative numbers of these surface molecules will be reflected by the relative numbers in the whole of the solution which can be expressed by the mole fractions of the components Slide 39 Binary solution (with two components) The total vapour pressure P exerted by such a binary solution P = P1 + P2 = P1oX1+ P2oX2 X1 & X2 : mole fractions of the solute and solvent, respectively. P1 & P2 : partial vapour pressures exerted above the solution by solute and solvent, respectively, P1o & P2o: vapour pressures exerted by pure solute and pure solvent respectively Slide 40 Definition of ideal solution: The solution which obeys Raoult's law. Ideal behaviour should only be expected from systems having chemically similar components, why? because it is only in such systems that the condition of equal intermolecular forces between components, that is assumed in the ideal model, is likely to be satisfied. Slide 41 Raoult's law is obeyed over an appreciable concentration range by relatively few systems in reality e.g. Mixtures of benzene + toluene, n-hexane + n-heptane ethyl bromide + ethyl iodide Slide 42 2-Real or Non-Ideal Solutions The majority of real solutions do not exhibit ideal behaviour, why? because solute-solute, solute-solvent and solvent-solvent forces of interaction are unequal. The effective concentration of each component cannot be represented by normal expression of concentration, e.g. the mole fraction x but by the so-called activity or thermodynamic activity Slide 43 Real or Non-Ideal Solutions P1 = P1oa1 This equation is applicable to all systems whether they are ideal or non-ideal. In ideal solution a = x, in real solutions a x The ratio of activity/concentration is termed the activity coefficient (f) and it provides a measure of the deviation from ideality. Slide 44 Positive deviation from Raoult`s law If the attractive forces between solute - solvent molecules are weaker than solute- solute or solvent solvent then the components will have little affinity for each other. Slide 45 The escaping tendency of the surface molecules in such a system is increased when compared with an ideal solution. i.e. P1, P2 and P are greater than expected from Raoult's law thermodynamic activities of the components are greater than their mole fractions, i.e. a1 > X1 and a2 > X2. Slide 46 e.g. alcohol + benzene small deviation water + diethyl ether less miscible (greater + D) benzene + water immiscible (very large +D) Slide 47 Negative deviation from Raoult`s law If the solute and solvent have a strong affinity for each other that results in the formation of a complex or compound negative deviation from Raoult's law occurs. P1, P2 and P are lower than expected and a1< X1 and a2< X2. e.g. chloroform + acetone, pyridine + acetic acid and water + nitric acid.