Solubility. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves...
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Transcript of Solubility. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves...
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Solubility Slide 2 SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form increasing concentration Slide 3 Solubility Table LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 517 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids Solubility (grams of solute/100 g H 2 O) KI KCl 20 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 130 140 100 NaNO 3 KNO 3 HClNH 4 Cl NH 3 NaCl KClO 3 SO 2 shows the dependence of solubility on temperature gases solids Slide 4 Solubility Solubility maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated solution Slide 5 Solubility Solids are more soluble at... Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henrys Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the bends, soda Slide 6 Temp. ( o C) Solubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KNO 3 (s) KCl (s) HCl (g) SOLUBILITY CURVE Solubility how much solute dissolves in a given amt. of solvent at a given temp. below unsaturated:solution could hold more solute; below line on saturated:solution has just right amt. of solute; on line supersaturated:solution has too much solute dissolved in it; above the line Slide 7 ToTo Sol. ToTo Solids dissolved in liquids Gases dissolved in liquids As T o, solubility Slide 8 per 100 g H 2 O Classify as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated. 80 g NaNO 3 @ 30 o Cunsaturated 45 g KCl @ 60 o Csaturated 50 g NH 3 @ 10 o Cunsaturated 70 g NH 4 Cl @ 70 o Csupersaturated So sat. pt. @ 40 o C for 500 g H 2 O = 5 x 66 g = 330 g 120 g < 330 gunsaturated saturation point @ 40 o C for 100 g H 2 O = 66 g KNO 3 Per 500 g H 2 O, 120 g KNO 3 @ 40 o C Slide 9 (A) Per 100 g H 2 O, 100 g Unsaturated; all solute NaNO 3 @ 50 o C. dissolves; clear solution. (B) Cool solution (A) very Supersaturated; extra slowly to 10 o C. solute remains in solution; still clear. Describe each situation below. (C) Quench solution (A) in Saturated; extra solute an ice bath to 10 o C. (20 g) cant remain in solution, becomes visible. Slide 10 Hotpack / Coldpack Slide 11 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Hot and Cold Packs Article KeysKeys Article "Hot and Cold Packs" ChemMatters Feb. 1987 QuestionsQuestions Article "Hot and Cold Packs" ChemMatters Feb. 1987 QuestionsQuestions Slide 12 Solubility of Sodium Acetate Temperature ( o C) 0 255075100 Solubility(g/100 g H 2 O) 50 100 150 Supersaturated solution Unsaturated solution Saturated Charles H.Corwin, Introductory Chemistry 2005, page 378 A single crystal of sodium acetate, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, is dropped into a supersaturated solution The small crystal causes extensive crystallization, and eventually the solute forms a solid mass of NaC 2 H 3 O 2. video clip Slide 13 Solubility Equilibrium Slide 14 Vitamins Multi Vitamin Provides many essential vitamins Expensive urine Water Soluble Vitamin C Must be replenished regularly Fat Soluble Can overdose Vitamin A Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat Slide 15 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Steroids KeysKeys Bob Hazelton Article - Steroids Bob Hazelton ArticleBob Hazelton Article - Steroids Slide 16 Reverse Osmosis Slide 17 Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A Wolrd of Choices 1999, page 267 Slide 18 Net flow of solvent Net Solvent Flow Dilute solution Concentrated solution Solute particleSolvent particle Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry 1999, page 430 semipermeable membrane Net flow of solvent Slide 19 Gas, Liquid, and Solid Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 441 Slide 20 Classes of Reactions Chemical reactions Precipitation reactions Acid-Base Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion Reactions Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 240 Slide 21 Summary of Classes of Reactions Chemical reactions Precipitation reactions Acid-Base Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion Reactions Decomposition reactions (Products are elements.) Synthesis reactions (Reactants are elements.) Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 242 Slide 22 Dissociate in Water Slide 23 Hydrogen Bonding Intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules Bonds exist within molecules Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 442 Slide 24 K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ NO 3 - AgCl precipitate K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ NO 3 - AgCl precipitate Slide 25 Dissolving of NaCl Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 287 Slide 26 Solutions Slide 27 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Liquid Nitrogen Demonstrations KeysKeys Liquid Nitrogen Slide 28 http://www.unit5.org/christjs/tempT 27dFields-Jeff/Solutions1.htm Titration of Vitamin C with Iodine KeysKeys Slide 29 Definitions Solute Solute - KMnO 4 Solvent Solvent - H 2 O Slide 30 Solvation Dissociation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) Slide 31 Solvation Ionization Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Slide 32 Solvation Molecular Solvation Molecular Solvation molecules stay intact C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq)