Sociology of quantity surveying (2)

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Transcript of Sociology of quantity surveying (2)

  • 1. Psychology of Quantity Surveying S.P Zuka Department of Land Economy and Quantity Surveying

2. The Discipline of Sociology The definition of Sociology: It is the study of groups ranging from the smallest group to the largest. The smallest begins with two people, largest group being society Sociology can also be defined as a sequence of roles, which an individual plays in relation to others at different places and times. E.g. a Quantity Surveyor Sociology can also be seen as the study of associations and dissociations because it examines human tendencies for participation, cohesion and conflict as individuals interact with each other e.g. interaction at a building site. Sociology studies interaction in the society, established groups and corporations. Corporation: group of persons authorized to act as an individual in order to attain a specific objectives. Society: possible groupings of people, not sub-group 3. Sociology and Other Disciplines From our discussion above, Sociology deals with human interactions in various places, groups, organisations and times. As you may be aware, human interaction is influenced by a number of factors including: economic conditions, historical, political and even psychological. E.g. Other people are friendly when they have money and are aggressive if they do not have money Because of what happened in the past, one person is unfriendly to other people or does not trust them Thus, sociology draws from other disciplines information to explain and predict human phenomena e.g. from Quantity Surveying it draws professional expectations 4. Continued From history, it draws information to explain factors that led to the growth of Quantity Surveying as a profession and the institutions that rise to regulates the profession. You will notice that there is a relationship between Quantity Surveying and Sociology. Sociology makes use of knowledge with the Built Environment to understand the effect of the work of professionals within the Built Environment and Society and between the professionals themselves. You have to note that Sociology is a science as it arrives at its generalizations scientifically. 5. Methods of Generating Sociological Knowledge Sociologists carefully and systematically collect information through observation and intelligent reasoning They then summarize the information to develop a particular theory about the society and interactions There are three main methods Sociologists use in their research namely: Historical Approach Correlation Approach Functionalist Approach You will now move on to look at each of these in summary 6. Historical Approach The method examines the origin of a given phenomenon, social institution or organisation The aim is to understand what lead to the rise and acceptance of a particluar issue This method has been widely used by sociologists such as Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim The approach is also known as genetic approach. It examines the initial conditions that led to the rise of a particular issue. The early sociologists were concerned with understanding how societies and different institutions began 7. Historical Approach Karl Mark was interested in understanding the rising of capitalisms in the 19th century He came up with five stages in explaining social change: Primitive society Feudal society Capitalistic society Socialist society Communist society In primitive society, society depend on themselves and self contained, there is no specialisation There is total harmony. Everyone has enough 8. In feudalism, there are a group of people who control the land i.e. The land lords and the serfs Landlords own vast areas of land while the serfs wok on the land The landlord exploit the serfs, which is the basis for the change The serfs rise against the landlords after feeling that they are being exploited The serfs find a new thing to do and set in motion the process of industrilization In capitalism there are two groups of people namely: the bourgeousie and the proletariate The borgeousie who are the owners of the industries exploit the proletariate by paying them less money Continued 9. Capitalsims was digging its own grave by paying less meoney to the workers The labouers then rise against the capitalsits and seize the means of production and set in socialism In sociolism, the means of production are collectively owned by the labouers The laboures share the output on the basis of need and not capability Mark argues that socialism gives way to communism Comminism is a refined socialism and the ultimate stage in heman development. The state withers away and harmony comes back Continued 10. Correlational Approach The approach derives its name from correlation It makes uses of two concepts namely correlation and variable correlation refers to the relationship betwn variables that occur regularly Variable is a characteristics that can change or differ from time to time; place to place; from one ondividual to another. Variables can be indeendent in that they cause change or dependent in that they change e.g. The project coordinator can shout at site operatives until they get angry. The shouting is independent while the behavour of the workers is the dependent The correlation approach expalins te exisitence of a social issue by focussing on factors asssociated with that issue. Socilogists also uses this approach in explaining the casusal effect relationship 11. Functionalists Approach This approach explains the existence of social issues in terms of their contribution to the overall maintenance of the society The functionalist method classifies activities and institutionalized patterns of behavior as functional or dysfunctional Functional activities are behaviors that contribute positively to society while dysfunctional are behaviors that have negative consequences o the society For instance, the use of qualified Quantity Surveyors and institutions ensures that clients are protected from abuse The certification of Quantity Surveyors is functional This gives some one advantage in terms of employment and economic standing in society However, other people may forge certification and pretend that they are qualified. This is not the intended aim of certification and so it is dysfunctional 12. Sociology of Quantity Surveyors Sociology of Quantity Surveyors is within the broad study of sociology of the Built Environment It is concerned with understanding the interaction between professionals and clients and those in the Built Environment It is aimed at understanding the contribution of the work of professions to the society It aims at understanding the impact of the built environment on society interaction; and the relationship and relevancy of the created environment to the functionality of the society 13. Importance of Studying Sociology There are several importances of studying sociology to Quantity Surveyors including: Work better amongst themselves Help to protect the Qunatity Surveyors from social harm Help them come up with socially accepted developments Helps them participate fully in projetcs These are in line with major conditions that promote interaction and these are: Participation = participate in a particular society and profession Cohension = it is as a result of allegaince, coordination and intersection Conformity = adherence to societal norms, which are the standards of behaviour shards by members in a group or society, members are supposed to comply with rules and regukations e.g. Professional Ethics in Qauntity Surveying Cooperation = cooperarion makes people achieve their goal e.g. if the goal in property development is to achieve quality, then there is need for cooperation to make sure that buildings regulations are followed. 14. Rural and urab Society A QS works in both rural and urban siocieties However, most of his services are required in the urban area There are times however that a QS wil work in the rural society e.g. When constrcuting schools, Rural Growth Centres, hospitals, etc The urban society is defferent from the rural society and QS need to know the difference for them to work properly 15. Difference between Urban and Rural Areas Population size urban area are densely populated and most people are in their economically active ages, rural are sparsely populated Economic- in most rural areas workforce are farmers or engaged in primary activities while in urban areas most are employed in secondary and tertiary sectors. Many rural areas have become commuter/dormitory settlement for people working in adjacent areas Services - Schools, hospitals ,banks ,public transport are either absent in rural areas or scanty, .Land use - Rural areas are spaced with open land between adjacent villagers for farming and small scale industry. In urban settlement often parked together and within town there is a greater mixture of land use with residential, industrial services and open space provision Social - rural settlements especially those in more remote areas tend to have more inhabitants in the over 65 age group, whereas the highest proportion in the urban areas lies within the economically active age group or those under secondary school age It is becoming more difficult to differentiate villages from towns since urban areas are spreading to rural fringes. Therefore transitional zone is created from strongly rural or strongly urban 16. Rural-Urban Migration: Cause and Effects Rural-Urban migration has push and pull factors Push factors are reasons that will make people leave their area such as unfavorable conditions, crop failure, natural disasters, mechanization, lack of services Pull factors are factors that make people get attracted into the urban area and include better education and health services, employment opportunity, better housing Rural-urban migration impact on both rural and