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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012

NAME GROUP EXPERIMENT DATE PERFORMED SEMESTER PROGRAMME

: SITI FATIMAH BINTI NGAGIMAN (2011683532) : EH 221 2B (GROUP 6) : SOAP AND DETERGENT : 25TH MAY 2012 : 02 : FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESS (EH 221)

NO

TITTLES

1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTIONS 3. AIMS 4. THEORY 5. APPARATUS 6. METHADOLOGY/ PROCEDURES 7. RESULTS 8. CALCULATIONS 9. DISCUSSIONS 10. CONCLUSION 11. RECOMMENDATIONS 12. REFERENCES 13. APPENDIX TOTAL MARKS REMARKS: CHECKED BY:

ALLOCATED MARKS (%) 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 20 10 5 5 5 100

MARKS

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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012 ABSTRACT:The experiment which is to prepare the soap and detergent had been conducted on 25th May 2012. Basically, the experiment used to prepare the soap and thus, to compare the properties between the soap that had been prepared early with the synthetic detergent in the form of precipitation, emulsification and cleaning abilities. Based on the experiment that had been conducted, it can be concluded that the soap has the properties of emulsifying oil whereas the detergent has not. This is because the soap has the abilities of forming precipitates and it can be seen clearly in the soap solution while doing the experiment. Whereas the detergent has not forms precipitates at all. Thus, the experiment is completed and successfully conducted.

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012 INTRODUCTION:Soaps and detergents are used frequently in our daily life. We use them in many kinds of ways. We use them to wash our hands and clean our clothes without ever really paying attention on how they work. Beneath the plain white surface of a bar of Ivory soap lies an intrigung history and a powerful chemistry. Actually, it is hard to say when soap was first invented. Some hypothesize believe that the soap had been invented by the Babylonian in 2800 BC where soap have been excavated in clay cylinders and the Phoenicians around 600 BC. By 1500 BC Egyptians medical scrolls recommend a soap made from alkaline salt and animals and vegetables oil for skin conditions. In the early history, soap was used for the purpose of cleaning textile fibres such as wool and cotton in preparation for the dyeing process instead of personal hygiene. Later, the ancient Roman discovered the cleaning power of soap accidently. At Mount Sapo, where it a place for the animals were sacrificed, rain mixed animal fats, wood ashes and clay in to the soil. Then, incidently, women washing their clothes by the stream found it was much easier to wash their clothes with some of this clay mixture. Legend links Mount sapo with the process of soap making saponification. Interestingly, although Romans are famous for their baths, they actually did not use soap to wash. But they coated themselves in oils and after that used a scraping tool called a strigil to clean their bodies. However, bars of soap were found in the ruins of Pompeii and the archeologists believe soap was used for the laundry and occasionally on the body.

Figure 1.

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012Soap making was an established craft in Europe by the 7th century and soap making center flourished in France, Spain and also Italy. In the New World, soap makers found work in Jamestown as early as 1608. Besides, most of the early settlers made their own soap by boiling ashes and animal fats. As world growth, the soap industry continued to grow fairly steadily until the 20th century. While in 1916, there was a chemical break through that promised to change the role of soap for years to come. Thus, the Germans, suffering from a shortage of materials, resorted to synthetic detergent. As a result, it was succesful and by 1946 laundry detergent became available to the entire American population. In 1953, sales of detergent surpassed those of soap. Actually, soap and detergents are very similar in their chemical properties which is same function used to wash and clean a dirt. However, there is a significant difference between them where the soaps are produced from the natural products while the detergents are synthetic or man-made. In todays progressive world of science and technology, soap is manufactured much like it was back then where the fats and oils are technically heated with the presence of strong base which commonly used is sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to produce fatty acid salts and glycerol in a process termed as saponification process. As a matter of fact, the salt of a fatty acid is the soap, which is a soft and waxy material that brush up the ability for cleaning purpose of water. While processing of soap, a positive ion, usually Na+ or K+ and a negative ion usually the anions of long-chained carboxylic acids yielded by the hydrolysis of either animals or vegetables fats. Futhermore, the soap tends to decrease its melting point due to the presence of double bond which known as unsaturated with fatty acids materials. Thus, the compounds are in liquid form at room temperature. Technically, the vegetable fats are relatively unsaturated and liquid under the ordinary conditions, whereas animals fats are relatively more saturated and solid or more-solid at the same temperature. Thus, double bonds are said to lower the melting point of a fatty acid chain because its cis-conformation chain by a Van der Waals attraction. Hence, a lower temperature is required for these materials to form a solid crystal lattice. If now we can see, there a variety of detergents can be found today, which generally contain surfactants, a builder and other additives such as bleaching agents and enzymes. The surfactants are the parts that are responsible for the cleaning properties of

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012that particular detergent. Some of them may be cationic, ionic and non-ionic. The builders indeed are compounds responsible for removing the corresponding calcium and also the magnesium ions in hard water. Furthermore, there are two detergents which may not be safe as it may concern, mostly that contains phosphates. Such detergents will end up in wastewater and cause excessive growth of algae and other aquatic plants. When those die, bacteris that present in the dead matter consume oxygen which then results in the lack of oxygen left for the fish and other aquatics lives.

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE:For this experiment, we conducted to achieve the objective which are to prepare a soap by using the mineral oils. Besides, the experiment is conducted to study and compare the properties between the soap and synthetic detergent in the form of precipitation, emulsification and also cleaning abilities.

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012 THEORY:Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occuring fatty acids. Air buubles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap thus it will float on the water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than a sodium, a softer lather is the result. This is because the bar soap produced in the presence of sodium hydroxide while the liquid soap is formed in the presence of potassium hydroxide. Theorytically, the soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil. Currently, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to the salt. In the other words, soap is a generic term for the sodium or potassium salts of long-chain organic acid which is fatty acid that are made from naturally occuring esters in animal fats and also the vegetable oils. All organic acid contain the RCOOH functional group, where R is the shorthen notation for the complex hydrocarbon which famously known as alkyl group. The term for R is used because the group can be very large and for the addition for each chain has a litter effect for the chemical reactivity. While for the ester it contain RCOOR functional group. A soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a long chain fatty acid. The fatty acid usually contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms which can be expressed as term R. Solid soap usually consists of sodium salts of fatty acids whereas liquid soaps usually are potassium salts of fatty acid. Besides, the few examples of soaps are sodium fatty acid such as lauric (vegetable oil), palmitic (palm oil), and stearic (animal fat). Furthermore, the hydrocarbon chain in the soap may contain saturated and unsaturated chains. Sodium salts are usually solid therefore, most bars of soap are sodium salts. While potassium salts are the basis of liquid soaps, shaving cream, and greases. Triglycerides is formed by the combination of three molecules of fatty acid which are fats and vegetable oils. Triglycerides included in the ester group which is RCOOR which derived from three fatty acids. A triglyceride made from three lauric acid molecules which shown as below: General overall hydrolysis reaction: Fat + NaOH glycerol + sodium salts/ fatty acid

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012

Figure 2

- the hydrolysis of triglycerides

For the figure above, it formed by the saponification of a triglyceride with the sodium hydroxide. Actually, saponification is a process that produce soap usually from fats and lye. In the other words, saponification involves base hydrolysis of triglycerides, which are esters of fatty acid to produce a product which is sodium salt od a carboxylate. Besides, saponification processes also produce glycerol. The mechanism by which esters are cleaved by base involves nucleophilic acyl substitution. Then the hydroxide anion, OH- adds to attacks the carbonyl group of the ester. Then the intermediate product is formed is orthoester.

Figure 3

- the mechanism of ester (1)

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING May 25, 2012At this stage