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- AS MEDIA STUDIES
G322 Institutions and Audiences
- Section B of the exam: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with:
The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
The importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
The technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
- The significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences (i.e. digital technology)
The importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences: the internet, digital downloads, DVDs, High Definition, CGI, etc.
The issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;
The ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.
Write down your definition for the term production and give examples from film case studies.
Write down the role/responsibility of a producer.
Involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the production company.
Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film which may come from one or many production companies (a co-production)
Producers are frequently the first person to become involved in a project; they participate directly in all the main producing phases; and see the project through production, to post-production, marketing and distribution.
The Producer's is role to turn story ideas into profitable cinematic entertainment, and to persuade others to share in his or her commercial and creative vision. Producers usually report to the production company, or to the Executive Producers appointed to supervise the production on behalf of the financiers and Distributors.
Producers have overall control on every aspect of a film's production, bringing together the Screenwriters, Director, cast, finances and production team.
Their primary responsibility is to foster an environment in which the creative talents of the cast and crew can flourish - Producers are therefore ultimately accountable for the success of the finished film.
Producers many responsibilities span all four phases of production:
- 1. Development
Producers are often responsible for coming up with the underlying premise of a production, or for selecting the screenplay. Producers secure the necessary rights, select the screenwriter and story editing team, raise the development financing, and supervise the development process.
- 2. Pre-production
Producers typically bring together the key members of the creative team, including the Director, Cinematographer and principal cast. They assist the Executive Producers to raise finance for the production.
Once this is in place, they select other key personnel, such as the Line Producer, Associate Producer and Production Manager, as well as the remaining Heads of Departments, such as Production Designer, Editor and Composer.
Producers also participate in location scouting, and approve the final shooting script, production schedule and budget.
- 3. Production
Producers are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the producing team, though many practical functions are delegated to the Line Producer and any Associate Producers.
Producers are also in constant communication and consultation with the Director, and with other key creative personnel, on and off set.
Producers approve all script changes and cost reports, and continue to serve as the primary point of contact for all production partners, investors and Distributors
- 4. Post-production and marketing
Producers are expected to liaise personally with post-production personnel, including the Editor, Composer, and Visual Effects staff.
They then consult with all creative and financial personnel on the production of the answer (or final) print.
They are usually involved with the financial and distribution entities in planning the marketing and distribution of the finished film.
What are the pre-production issues for the production company when making films?Whose idea was the film? Did the idea start with the writer, or were writers brought in to develop a preconceived idea?What are the issues with the genre of the film?Where did the idea come from? Was it an original idea, or perhaps a book first, or TV series, or comic strip, or from some other source?Who wrote the original script? Did other people become involved in the writing as the project progressed?How easy was it to arrange the financial backing to make the film? Who were the financial backers? Why?Casting who were cast in the main roles and why? What other films featured the stars? What were the associations they brought with them?Who was the producer? How did he or she become involved?Who was the director? How did he or she become involved?Who composed the film music and why was he or she chosen? Consider the sales of the CDs on Amazon, etc. Seek out reviews.
What were the issues for the production company during the production phase?Was it an easy shoot? If there were difficulties what were they? Were there tensions between any of the creative personnel, often known as the talent?Was any part of the film shot on location? If so, where? Why were some locations chosen over others? Were costs a factor?Where there any difficulties with casting or with acquiring the stars/actors the producer wanted?How significant was casting to reach specific audiences?What did the studio film cost to make? How much did the stars get? Where did the budget go? Was the film shot within budget? Was it ever in any danger of going over budget?Were there any changes to the script during production? How many changes or re-writes? Did the same scriptwriter(s) stay on board all the time, or were some replaced?List some of the key people who made contributions to the production and highlight some of their individual contributions.
What were the technological issues for the studio for producing and distributing the film?
- Other important Issues and Key Terms
Proliferation the increase of films in a genre or the use of technology, etc.Are your focus films in a particular genre? Are they benefitting from new technology, including software in their production, editing and distribution? Are they available for downloading from the Net.
Synergies the involves the benefits of working within a larger organisation or working in co-operation with other companies. Does, for instance, how does Film4 benefit from being part of being Channel 4?
Cross media convergence how does the institution and its film(s) benefit from the coming together of other technologies, i.e. the internet, digital downloading, television, cinemas, mobile phone promotions, Youtube, play-station 4, digital games, etc.Other terms and words you think are important for production issues and are topic specific.
- Revision Concept/Mind Map
In pairs, create a concept map or mind map on the production issues of ONE of the following Working Title Films.
The Boat That Rocked
Bridget Joness Diary
- Digital Technology
Convergence and new technologies in production, distribution and marketing & its importance for institutions and audienceshow important was new technology such as CGI, blue or green-screen, etc. important for the film and its audiences?how important is digital technology for the distribution of the film? (in cinemas,how significant is internet, digital downloads, DVDs, high definition, CGI, digital television, etc for distributing the institutions film? Again, what are the issues?
Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:
PRINTS producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film
MARKETING raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release
A distributor may:
-Be a part of the same parent company as the production company
- Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions
- Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production company
- Acquire a film after it has completed production
-Releases in different countries