Slum Rehabilitation- Impact of Jnnurm
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SLUM REHABILITATION:IMPACT OF JNNURMJNNURMA CASE OF KERALA
Presented by: Tessy Varkey Roll No:10AR60R25 MCP First Year Dept. of Architectural & Regional Planning Under the guidance of Prof. Banhi Chakraborty
DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM
To analyze the impact of JNNURM objectives on Slum Rehabilitation. To compare with other older schemes under Slum Rehabilitation
The comparison and studies undertaken in my report are solely in the context of the state of Kerala.
INTRODUCTION OF TERMINOLOGY
SLUM REHABILITATION : The universal definition of a slum is a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and unhygienic conditions. Rehabilitation is to rebuild the homes, reunite the community, and re-render the living standards and habits. JNNURM: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
OLDER SLUM REHABILITATION PROJECTSONE MILLION HOUSING SCHEME SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME
SLUM REHABILITATION PROJECTS UNDER JNNURMBSUP TRIVANDRUM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION IHSDP CHANGANASSERY MUNICIPALITY
WHO ARE THE POOR
VISION AND ROAD MAP FOR BASIC SERVICES TO THE POORA Slum Free KERALA by the Year 2031 Sl. No. Vision outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Literacy (Percentage) Access to school Access to primary health Sanitation (% coverage) Drinking Water (% coverage) Access to housing (% coverage) Incidence of poverty Slums (% of reduction) 25 0.5 2006-07 80 60 40 30 50 2012 95 90 85 75 85 80 15 50 2020 100 90 90 90 100 100 0 85 2031 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 100
Goals and service outcomes 100% Literacy; Total Sanitation; Housing to all poor families; Provision of safe drinking water within 150m; Universal access to health care through microinsurance; Community empowerment through community mobilization and capacity building; Provision of basic infrastructure-Roads, Drainage, Sewerage; Access to qualitative and affordable basic services to the poor; Provision of land tenure security; Sustainable livelihood to all the urban poor; and Re-location of slums, located in hazardous and vulnerable areas.
Based on the location features and the general population characteristics a detailed CATEGORIZATION OF THE SLUMS can be attempted as follows: Slums that are located in low lying areas; Slums that are located along the sides of canals, railway margins and water bodies; Slums that are located adjacent to sewage and drainage ponds; Slums which have a concentration of fisher folk; and Slums which have a concentration of Scheduled Caste population All these slums and slum like habitats do not have uniform characteristics. Broadly, these areas can be classified as:Those where in-situ developments are possible; and Those from where the squatters may have to be ultimately relocated, since these locations are critical / vulnerable as they are canal / road / railway margins or floodable areas.
The nine risk factors of the POVERTY INDEX in urban areaLess than 5 cents of land/no land Dilapidated house/no house No sanitary latrine No access to safe drinking water within 150 meters Women headed household No regular employed person in the family Socially disadvantaged groups SC/ST Mentally retarded / disabled / chronically ill member in the family Families without colour TV Any family having 4 or more factors is classified as family at risk. (Source: Kudumbashree, Thiruvananthapuram)
ONE MILLION HOUSING SCHEME (1972)
ONE MILLION HOUSES SCHEMELaunched by the Government of Kerala under M.N. Govindan Nair, Housing Minister in the 1972 Achutha Menon Ministry. The cost of construction of each house was fixed between Rs. 1250/- and Rs. 1500/-. A house with 2 rooms and a kitchen within an area of 250 sq.ft.. Construct and distribute the houses to the beneficiaries free of cost. For beneficiary involvement, the panchayats were directed to realize Rs.110/- from each allottee. The entire amount spent for the purchase of land and development of house-sites was received as subsidy from the Government of India. There were 960 panchayats in the state and it was decided to construct 100 houses in each panchayats, thus making a total target of 96000 units. The present condition of most of the houses so constructed are very pathetic without routine repairs and maintenance. According to the details collected from the Directorate of Panchayats there are a total of 90208 houses under the scheme. Of this, about 57590 are single houses and 16309 are duplex houses (for 32618 families). The Kerala State Housing Board propose to implement a scheme for the renovation/repair of the single units and also reconstruction of the duplex houses to single houses.
Source : http://www.kshb.kerala.gov.in/
RENOVATION OF ONE MILLION HOUSESAfter 36 years (2008) most of them are in a dilapidated condition. A scheme to renovate the single houses at the cost of Rs. 50,000 each. Rs. 25000 as subsidy and Rs. 25000 as contribution from Panchayats/NGOs etc. for common categories 75 percent of the amount as subsidy for SC and 100 percent as subsidy for ST) is being implemented. Government has set apart the income from Vishu Bumper Lottery for this purpose. Under the scheme, reconstruction of dilapidated twin houses into single units and reconstruction of single houses will be implemented through the Board. The Government Subsidy will be 50,000/- for General Category, 75000 for SC Category and Rs.1,00,000 for ST Category. 50% of the subsidy amount will be given by KSHB and the balance amount shall be met by the Local Bodies. Government sanction received. 15036 applications received and 8326 units of 183 Panchayaths were sanctioned by the Board.
SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME (2001)
SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME(2001) :The scheme envisages rehabilitation of slum dwellers in Chengalchoola in Thiruvanathapuram city. The flats are being allotted free of cost to the eligible.
Chengalchoola (Rajaji Nagar) HOUSING BOARD
The total area is 12 acres. There are 1042 households with a total population of about 5000. 700 dwelling units have been constructed by the Kerala State Housing Board (KSHB) of which 200 require intensive maintenance. Recently TMC, through COSTFORD, has constructed 90 dwelling units and 70 are scheduled for immediate construction. Nearly 182 shacks still remain to be taken up. The total number of houses to be built in the colony is 252. There are some clubs for young men and 3 Anganwadis. Being a low lying area located by the side of drainage canal the colony is flooded during monsoons. The overspill water often carries sewage and solid wastes. An informal daily market is operated in the area where the vendors are mostly the elderly. This market is located by the roadside and is operated in very unhygienic conditions. A space can be made available for the relocation of this market. Only the pucca houses have toilets and water supply. The wide drain which runs through the colony needs to be considered while effecting improvements in Rajaji Nagar Slum area.
CONCLUSIONSThe common features of all these colonies include the following: The slum dwellers have land rights There are no common facilities for girls or women of any age. Very few have some clubs for men. Only 45% of the houses have electricity connection. Housing The dwelling units constructed by government, governmental agencies or by NGOs under any of the schemes provided only bare facilities like one room for sleeping, one common room and a kitchen. These houses are over crowded with as many as 5 to 10 members in a few households. Some dwelling units also have more than one household living under the same roof. Drinking Water Supply This is an essential input in improving the quality of life of the slum dwellers. At present they suffer in terms of quantity and quality of drinking water supplied. Many of them do not have house connections. Water supply is mostly from public water supply taps (street fountains) Storm Water Drainage Lack of proper storm water drainage is a serious problem especially in low lying settlements. In Chenkalchoola where the entire sewage of the city is coming and getting collected for pumping out, creates lots of environmental problems.
Sewerage The pollution of the settlements from the overflowing sewage is a serious problem in Chenkalchoola. In the core city areas sewer lines are to be constructed from within the settlements to the main sewers. Roads In all the colonies proper internal roads are absent. Connectivity to each house is necessary. Environmental Improvement Most of the settlements have very poor environment, puddles of water, heaps of dirt and litters and garbage thrown around. The Support Services not available are: 1)Day Care Centres for young children of pre school age 2)Remedial Education Centres for school dropouts and for school going students who need teaching assistance to get through with studies. These centres can also be used as vocational training centres. 3)Centre for counseling/ Preventive Health Clinics for people of all age group. 4)Community Centres for use of both men and women. These can also function as meeting halls and for vocation centres for NHGs. 5)Provision of play fields and organized open spaces for out door activities.
JNNURM- JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSIONIt is a massive city modernisation scheme launched by Government of India. It envisages a total investment of over $20 billion over seven years. It is named after Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India. The scheme was officially inaugurated by the prime minister, Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005 It has two sub-missions: the Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance administered by the Ministry of Urban Development, with a focus on water supply and sanitation, solid waste management, road network, urban transport and redevelop