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i

Slum Networking

An Innovative Approach to Urban

Development

Building and Social Housing Foundation

ii

Building and Social Housing Foundation, 1997

Extracts from this publication may be reproduced without further permission, provided that the source is fullyacknowledged.

Written by

Diane Diacon

Published by

Building and Social Housing FoundationMemorial SquareCoalvilleLeicestershireLE67 3TUUNITED KINGDOM

Tel: 01530 510444Fax: 01530 510332Email: bshf@bshf.orgWebsite www.bshf.org

ISBN 0 9522278 6 X

Charity Number 270987

iii

Foreword by Rt. Hon. Baroness Chalker of Wallasey, Former Minister of Overseas Development, United Kingdom.

List of photographs, figures and tables

Introduction

1. Urbanisation and slum housing in India

1.1 Population increase and urbanisation1.2 Growth of slums1.3 Slum living conditions1.4 Approaches to slum improvement1.5 General guidance for infrastructure provision in slums

2. The Slum Networking approach to urban development

2.1 Main features of the Slum Networking approach2.2 Physical improvements in the Slum Networking approach

. roads and footpaths

. storm drainage

. sanitation and sewerage

. water supply

. earthworks and soft landscaping

. street lighting

. solid waste management2.3 Community development

. social aspects

. economic activities / income generation

. education

. health2.4 Organisation and finance2.5 Long term project continuity

3. Slum Networking in practice

3.1 The Indore Habitat Project. Indore City profile. Information gathering. Physical improvements. Community development. City wide impact. Organisation and implementation. Monitoring and management. Financing and costs

Contents

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3.2 Baroda - an example of increased community control. Baroda City profile. Project scope and components. Implementation framework. Phasing and costs. Ramdevnager pilot project

3.3 Ahmedabad - an example of financial self sufficiency. Ahmedabad City profile. Project scope and components. Project implementation. Phasing and costs

4. Replication of the Slum Networking approach

4.1 Project or process?4.2 Opportunities for further expansion4.3 Role of government in encouraging replication4.4 An external perspective

5. Reference and further information

5.1 Contacts in India for further information5.2 Building and Social Housing Foundation5.3 Participants attending the Study Visit5.4 Engineering drawings

. Manhole details

. Main sewers

. Community hall

. Water supply

. Storm drainage

. Sewerage

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It gives me great pleasure to introduce this

volume on Slum Networking. Successive

British Governments have long been concerned

with the sustainable processes that can be

adopted in the improvement of living conditions

for the poorest and most marginalised groups

within the cities of countries where our aid

programme is assisting the local government

initiatives.

Slum Networking is an innovative city-wide

approach to urban improvement that enables

people to help each other from the experience

gained in up-grading projects. The community

development runs alongside the physical

works. Much of this is also innovative and can

be carried out at a fraction of the cost of

conventional city infrastructure development.

In this respect the British Government grant

aided the first project that used the Slum

Networking approach in Indore, India - a major

city in the state of Madhya Pradesh with a

population of 1.4 million. It is pleasing to note

from this account of subsequent events that

the approach is now being replicated in other

cities in India - for example, Baroda and

Ahmedabad - due to the success in Indore.

What is interesting to observe in this context is

that the Slum Networking projects described

here no longer rely on grant aid for funding.

City authorities are realising the value of such

work and are prepared to fund it themselves.

In Ahmedabad the city's industrial enterprises

are also contributing to the cost of the Slum

Networking programme since they recognise

that it is in their long term commercial

interests for the city to eradicate slum

conditions.

The story is told of the far-reaching impact of

the project - health and education standards

are increasing as a result of the community

development programmes being carried out in

the slum areas. In addition slum dwellers now

have much better links into the mainstream

education and health systems, which previously

had not been the case. The work is a tribute

to the Indore Development Authority, its

Director Mr C M Dagaonkar and its Engineer Mr

Himanshu H Parikh, who pioneered this

approach to city development at the local level.

Although the approach does not directly fund

housing improvements, this book shows that

there has been a dramatic improvement in the

quality of housing in the slum areas. This is

due to the fact that once the area

improvements have been carried out and

services brought into the area, slum dwellers

are prepared to invest their own limited

resources, together with their time and labour,

in improving their homes.

After nearly eight years as Minister for

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Foreword

vi

Overseas Development I feel that this book is a

fitting marker in the catalogue of successes

that has shown how disadvantaged people can

achieve for themselves the much needed

improvements in their lives and how this has

been enabled through the dedicated work of

the various partners in the aid programmes in

these cities.

I thank all who have been involved.

The Rt. Hon The Baroness Chalker of Wallasey

Consultant on Development,

Former Minister of Overseas Development

British Government

Photographs

1 Slum conditions prior to improvement under the Slum Networking programme

2 Sewage in open channels in unimproved slums

3 Unpaved roads and open gutters in unimproved slums

4 Road edges eroding in unimproved slums

5 Concrete roads provide all-weather access after Slum Networking

6 Wider access road in improved slum in Indore

7 Narrow road in an improved slum in Indore

8 Downward sloping road after improvement

9 Individual household toilet in an improved slum in Indore

10 Conventional tree guards achieve 10 per cent survival rate

11 Community tre guards achieve 70 per cent survival rate

12 Typical community hall in an improved slum in Indore

13 A small shop in an improved slum in Indore

14 A kindergarten class in a community hall in an improved slum in Indore

15 8 year old girl working 7 hours a day to supplement family income

16 Regular health checks on children under health programme

17 Improved access in Indores slums

18 Multi-use of improved roadways in Indore

19 Slum Networking provides an improved quality of life for all

20 River Khan in centre of Indore prior to cleansing

21 River Khan in Indore after cleansing

22 Attractive walkways alongside clean rivers

23 Sewage-free rivers provide a healthy and attractive leisure facility

24 Mr John Major, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom visiting the slum improvement work

done in Indore

Figures

1 Urban and rural population levels in India for 1991 and for the year 2001 (projected)

2 Population growth rates in India

3 Association of slums and water courses

4 Principals of topography management

5 Locations of Indore, Baroda, Jodhpur and Ahmedabad

6 Components of Indore Habitat project

7 Physical survey of the Ekta Indira Nagar slum

8 Physical survey of Musakhedi Balai Mohalla slum

9 Creating road linkages through Slum Networking

10 Proposed and implemented river front improvement

11 Indore Habitat Project team

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Tables

1 Comparative costs of piped and open storm drains

2 Costs of individual infrastructure components per family

3 Comparatative costs of networking and conventional sewerage systems

4 The aggregate impact of Slum Networking in Indore

5 Pre-primary education programme in Indore

6 Health progress report for Indore slums

7 Summary of Indore project phasing and costs

8 Key elements of Baroda 2000 proect

9 Baroda 20