Sistem Rangka

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Rangka Aksial -Tengkorak -Tulang vertabra -Sangkar thorasik

Figure 5.6rosley i3p, Skeleton 2

Two sets of bones Cranium Facial bones

Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

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(The skull)

Figure 5.7rosley i3p, Skeleton 5

Figure 5.11rosley i3p, Skeleton 6

Figure 5.8rosley i3p, Skeleton 7

Figure 5.9rosley i3p, Skeleton 8

The cranium is composed of 8 bones, except for 2 paired bones, they are all single bones. Frontal Bone : the forehead, also forms the the projections under the eyebrows and the superior part of each eye orbit

Parietal Bones : paired bones that form the superior and lateral walls of the skull

They meet at the sagittal suture and form the coronal suture where they meet the frontal

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Figure 5.7rosley i3p, Skeleton 10

The temporal bones are inferior to the parietal bones, and join with them at the squamous suture There are several important bone markings on the temporal bone.

External auditory meatus: ear canalStyloid process : allows for muscle attachmentZygomatic process : the thin bridge of bone that joins anteriorly with the zygomatic bone

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Mastoid process provides an attachment site for some neck muscles. Also contains the mastoid sinuses. Jugular foramen : allows for the passage of the jugular vein . Carotid canal : anterior to the jugular foramen, allows for passage of the carotid artery.

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Figure 5.9rosley i3p, Skeleton 13

Occipital Bone forms the inferior posterior portion of the skull. The occipital bone contains the magnum foramen, which is the large opening that allows for passage of the spinal cord from the base of the brain down the vertebral column .

The occipital bone joins with the temporal and parietal bones

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The occipital bone features the occipital condyles, which articulate with the first cervical vertebrae, called the atlas. The sphenoid bone is the wing shaped bone which spans the skull, most of which is visible on the interior of the skull .

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14 bones compose the face 12 Bones are paired, and only the mandible and the vomer are single bones.

Maxillae ( maxillary bones) fuse to form the upper jaw. All of the facial bones join the maxillae, except the mandible

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The palatine processes form the anterior hard palate The maxillae also contain the para-nasal sinuses Palatine Bones paired bones that lie posterior to the hard palate Failure of these bones to fuse results in a cleft palate

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Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

Figure 5.10rosley i3p, Skeleton 18

The Zygomatic bones : commonly called the cheekbones, they also form a large portion of the eye sockets Vomer : single plow-shaped bone that forms the nasal septum

Inferior conchae : thin curved bones that project from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.Mandible : Lower jaw, the largest strongest bone of the face

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Hyoid Bone:

The only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with another bone.It is located in the mid neck, above the larynx, and is anchored to the styloid process by ligaments Shaped like a horse shoe, it serves as a movable base for the tongue and as a point of muscular attachment for muscles in the neck

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The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

Figure 5.12rosley i3p, Skeleton 21

The fetal skull is large when compared to the body of the fetus. A newborns skull has regions that have yet to be converted to bone. These soft spots are called fontanels ( little fountains) The rhythm of the babys pulse can be felt in these areas.

They are usually converted to bone 22 to 24 months post partum.rosley i3p, Skeleton 22

The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length

Figure 5.13rosley i3p, Skeleton 23

Fontanelles fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones Allow the brain to grow Convert to bone within 24 months after birth

Figure 5.13rosley i3p, Skeleton 24

1. Kranium * Berfungsi untuk melindungi otak. * Mempunyai 8 kepingan tulang yang berasingan bercantum melalui satur(sendi tak bergerak). 2. Soket mata (atau Orbit) * Berfungsi untuk melindungi kedua-dua bebola mata. 3. Tulang hidung * Berfungsi untuk menyokong tisu-tisu hidung yang lembut. 4. Lubang telinga * Berfungsi untuk melindungi bahagian dalam telinga. 5. Rahang atas (atau Maksila) * Berfungsi menyokong barisan gigi atas. 6. Rahang bawah (atau Mendibel) * Berfungsi menyokong barisan gigi bawah. * Rahang berkebolehan untuk bergerak, iaitu untuk menguyah makanan dan sebagainya. 7. Bukaan pada dasar tengkorak * Berfungsi untuk menyambung tengkorak dengan turus vertebra.

(Vertabral Column)

Is formed by 26 irregular bones Is a flexible, curved structure extending from the skull to the pelvis Protects the delicate spinal cord Transmits the weight load of the body to the lower limbs

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Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

Figure 5.14rosley i3p, Skeleton 28

There are 33 separate vertebrae at birth Nine of these fuse to for the composite bones of the sacrum and the coccyx From superior to inferior the bones are designated by location and number Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5

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The number of bones in each group can remembered by the time of day we typically eat. 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar Individual vertebrae are separated by flexible fibrocartilage intervertebral disks

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The intervertebral disks absorb shock, and are highly compressible. They are 90% water As we age, the water content decreases and the disks become less flexible This helps explain why some elderly people seem to shrink with age.

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Herniated, or slipped disks can press against the spinal cord or nerves that exit the spinal cord.. This can result in extreme pain, and loss of function Spinal Curvatures The spine is curved to help absorb shock.

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The thoracic and sacral curves are called primary curves because they are present at birth. The secondary curves develop later. The cervical develops when the baby begins to raise its head, and the lumbar when the child begins to walk.

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All vertebrae have a similar structural pattern. Some common features: Body or centrum: the weight bearing part of the vertebra, and it faces anteriorly. Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the posterior extensions from the body of the vertebrae. Vertebral foramen: canal through which the spinal cord passes.rosley i3p, Skeleton 35

Transverese Process: Two lateral projections from the vertebral arch Spinous Process : Single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch. Superior and Inferior Articular Processes : paired projections that allow vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the posterior extensions from the body of the vertebrae.rosley i3p, Skeleton 36

Figure 5.17abrosley i3p, Skeleton 37

Cervical vertebrae ( C1 to C7 )form the neck region of the spine. C1 and C2 are specialized, they perform functions not shared by other vcervical vertebrae The Atlas ( C1) Has no body

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Transverse processes have depressions that receive the occipital condyles. The Axis ( C2 ) Acts as a pivot for the atlas and the skull C3 through C7 are the smallest and lightest vertebrae Their spinous processes are short and divide into two branches.

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Figure 5.17abrosley i3p, Skeleton 40

The transverse processes contain foramina for the arteries to pass through on their way to the brain. They are the only group of vertebrae with this feature.

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Figure 5.17abrosley i3p, Skeleton 42

Thoracic vertebrae ( T1 T 12 ). Larger than cervical vertebrae Have two costal demifacets on each side to receive the head of the ribs Have long spinous processes that angle sharply downward. When viewed from the side resemble the head of giraffe

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Figure 5.17cdrosley i3p, Skeleton 44

Lumbar vertebrae ( L1 L 5 ). Are the strongest and stursiest of all vertebrae. Have large block- like bodies Spinous processes are short, and hatchet shaped. When viewed from the side resemble the head of a moose.

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Figure 5.17cdrosley i3p, Skeleton 46

Formed by 5 fused vertebrae Superior aspect articulates with the inferior aspect of L5 Laterally the wing-like alae articulate with the hip bones to form the sacroiliac joints It forms the posterior wall of the pelvis The vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the sacral canal

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Formed by the fusion of 3 to 5 tiny irregular vertebrae It is the vestigial tail in humans

The Thorax The sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae make up the thorax, or thoracic cage

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The Thoracic cage su