Sistem Hormon (Endocrine System)

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    Endocrine System

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    Hormones are chemical substances madeby endocrine glands. These glands

    pass the hormones directly into thebloodstream, which carries them aroundthe body. In this way, a hormone can

    cause a change in the body at somedistance from the gland where it wasmade.

    They are also known as ChemicalMessengers.

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    Endocrine Organs Pituitary

    Thyroid

    Parathyroid

    Adrenal

    Pineal

    Thymus

    Pancreas

    Gonads

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    Endocrine glands

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    Where theHormone isProduced

    Hormone(s) Secreted Hormone Function

    Adrenal Glands Aldosterone Regulates salt and water balance

    Adrenal Glands Corticoids Controls key functions in the body; acts as an anti-inflammatory; maintains blood sugar levels, bloodpressure, and muscle strength; regulates salt and water balance

    Pituitary Gland Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) Affects water retention in kidneys; controls blood pressure

    Pituitary Gland Corticotropin Controls production and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones

    Pituitary Gland Growth hormone Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production

    Pituitary Gland Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    Controls reproductive functioning and sexual characteristics

    Pituitary Gland Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of uterus and milk ducts in the breast

    Pituitary Gland Prolactin Initiates and maintains milk production in breasts

    Pituitary Gland Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates the production and secretion of thyroid hormones

    Kidneys Renin and Angiotensin Controls blood pressure

    Kidneys Erythropoietin Affects red blood cell (RBC) production

    Pancreas Glucagon Raises blood sugar levels

    Pancreas Insulin Lowers blood sugar levels; stimulates metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat

    Ovaries Estrogen Affects development of female sexual characteristics and reproductive development

    Ovaries Progesterone Stimulates the lining of the uterus for fertilization; prepares the breasts for milk production

    ParathyroidGlands

    Parathyroid hormone Affects bone formation and excretion of calcium and phosphorus

    Thyroid Gland Thyroid hormone Affects growth, maturation, and metabolism

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    Both endocrine and neurosecretory cells produces

    hormones, which is carried in the blood to the targetorgans.

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    Thymus Gland Location upper thorax, posterior to

    the sternum.

    Size large in infant & children,decreases in adulthood

    Hormone thymosin & T cell

    (lymphocytes)

    Role - immunity system

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    Adrenal Glands Location on top of kidneys

    Size bean-shaped

    Hormones- corticosteroids,mineralocorticoids & sex hormones

    Role regulate mineral of the blood

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    Location third ventricle of the brain

    Size small, cone shaped

    Hormone melatonin

    Role coordinates of fertility &reproductive system

    - sleep trigger: establish bodys day &

    night cycle

    Pineal Gland

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    The Anterior Pituitary Gland

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    The hormones secreted from the pituitary and the effects they have onthe body. Two hormones (ADH and oxytocin) are secreted from theposterior pituitary and six (prolactin, ACTH, growth hormone, TSH,

    FSH, and LH) from the anterior pituitary.

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    The Pituitary gland is the major and controlling gland of the endocrine system.Theanterior pituitary produces a number of hormones that control hormone production inthe endocrine glands. The pituitary is located near the base of the brain. About the sizeof a pea, the pituitaryis connected to the hypothalamusby a slender pituitary stalk

    (hypophyseal stalk). In addition to anatomical connection via the hypophyseal-hypothalamic tract, the hypothalamus regulates pituitary function providing a bridgebetween the nervous system and the endocrine system through the hypophyseal portalsystem. The hypophyseal portal system is a localized collection of blood vessels thatallow regulating agents secreted by the hypothalamus to travel directly to the pituitary.

    Neural imput can be interpreted by the hypothalamus and translated into pituitarycontrol and therefore affect the endocrine response. The connection between thehypothalamus and the pituitary establishes a clear chain of control: nervous signals inthe hypothalamus cause changes in pituitary hormone secretion that, in turn, controlproduction of hormones in other endocrine glands.

    The anterior lobe secretes seven different hormones: 1. Growth Hormone (GH), 2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), 3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), 4. the Gonadotropins (LH and FSH), 5. Prolactin (PRL), 6. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH).

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    The pituitary secretes gonadotropins, LH (lutinzinghormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

    In males, LH is usually referred to as interstitial cellstimulating hormone (ICSH). In females, LH acts tostimulate ovulation and the formation of the corpusluteum on an ovarian follicle. In males, the action of LHacts to stimulate testosterone production. In females,FSH stimulates estrogen secretion and supports thegrowth and maturation of the ovarian follicle. In males,FSH stimulates spermatogenesis, the formation of spermcells.

    Pituitary stimulation ofmelanocytestimulatinghormone (MSH) contributes to the regulation ofpigmentation of the skin by stimulating melanocytes toproduce melanin.

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    POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

    The posterior lobe, produces Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH).

    Oxytocin issecreted by the cells of the paraventricular nuclei.There are no known functions of oxytocin in males. In females,however, oxytocin plays a large role in mammary gland stimulationand contractions during birth.

    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin, issynthesized and secreted in the supraoptic nucleus. The primaryfunction of ADH is regulation of body water and is secretedwhenever the water levels in the blood are decreased. Decrease ofwater in the blood can be caused by osmotic diuresis (brought onby an increase in blood glucose levels, ketone bodies, or sodiumloss). ADH is also secreted when mechanoreceptors (blood volumereceptors) in the heart and pressure receptors in the vasculature arestimulated after blood loss. After a hemorrhage, ADH causesvasoconstriction, which leads to an increase of blood pressure.

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    Thyroid Gland

    Location base of the throat

    Size large, two lobes

    Hormone thyroid & calcitonin

    Role metabolic, control of growth &development: reproductive & nervoussystem. Calcitonin- decrease bloodcalcium level

    Goiter lack of iodine

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    The Thyroid Gland

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    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)stimulates thyroid growth and secretion of thyroidhormones, including Thyroxine and

    Triiodthyronine.

    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)stimulates adrenocortical growth (growth of

    cortex of adrenal glands) and the subsequentsecretion of corticosteroids. There is also anegative feedback mechanism involved in ACTHproduction. Cortisol is the principle corticosteroid

    produced by the adrenal glands. As levels ofcortisol increase in the bloodstream, they act toinhibit further production of ACTH by the anteriorpituitary.

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