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  • Simulation of Microstructure-based Mechanical Behaviour of

    Cast Components

    JakoB olofSSon

    Dissertation Series no. 3 • 2014 ISBn 978-91-87289-04-0

  • THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    Simulation of Microstructure-based

    Mechanical Behaviour of

    Cast Components

    JAKOB OLOFSSON

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Materials and Manufacturing – Casting

    SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, JÖNKÖPING UNIVERSITY

    Jönköping, Sweden 2014

  • Simulation of Microstructure-based

    Mechanical Behaviour of Cast Components Jakob Olofsson

    Materials and Manufacturing – Casting

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    School of Engineering, Jönköping University

    SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden

    jakob.olofsson@jth.hj.se

    Copyright © Jakob Olofsson

    Research Series from the School of Engineering, Jönköping University

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Dissertation Series No. 3, 2014

    ISBN 978-91-87289-04-0

    Published and Distributed by

    School of Engineering, Jönköping University

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden

    Printed in Sweden by

    Ineko AB

    Kållered, 2014

  • SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COMPONENTS

    i

    ABSTRACT

    In the process of developing cast iron and cast aluminium components, a high level of co-operation between product development and production is of great importance. From an engineering standpoint, this co-operation is limited early in the product development phase by e.g. a lack of established methods for the consideration of local variations in the mechanical behaviour of a finished component.

    This thesis aims to increase the possibilities for co-operation between product development and production during the product realisation process by introducing and studying the use of predicted local mechanical behaviour in structural analyses of cast components. A literature review of existing simulation methods and a work on characterisation of mechanical behaviour from microstructural features have been performed to identify important knowledge gaps. A simulation strategy has been formulated which is able to predict local mechanical behaviour throughout the entire component, and to incorporate this into a Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation of the structural behaviour of the component. In the simulation strategy, component- specific microstructure-based mechanical behaviour is predicted using a casting process simulation. A computer program was developed to create FEM material definitions which capture the local variations in mechanical behaviour throughout the component. Using a material reduction technique, the local mechanical behaviour can be incorporated without increasing the FEM simulation time.

    The relevance of the simulation strategy was experimentally verified on cast aluminium samples, where the strain field was observed using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). It was found that the local variations in mechanical behaviour cause a stress-strain distribution that deviates from that predicted by a homogeneous material description, indicating the importance of calculating with and including such variations in material behaviour in FEM simulations. Numerical investigations demonstrate the strategy’s relevance for predicting the behaviour of cast aluminium and ductile iron components.

    Keywords: Component behaviour, structural analysis, mechanical behaviour,

    casting process simulation, Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation.

  • ii

  • SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COMPONENTS

    iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would like to express my sincere gratitude to:

    My supervisors; Professor Ingvar L. Svensson and Associate Professor Salem Seifeddine, for making this work possible and for providing guidance, support, and interesting discussions.

    The people at Volvo Group Powertrain Engineering AB and Ljunghäll AB, for their extensive co-operation and support for the ideas that served as a foundation for the CCSIM-project (Closed Chain of SIMulations for cast components), in which the main part of the current work has been performed.

    The Swedish Knowledge Foundation, for financially supporting the CompCAST research profile at the School of Engineering, Jönköping University.

    All of my colleagues at the department of Mechanical Engineering at the School of Engineering, Jönköping University, for creating a good working environment including interesting discussions, friendship, and cakes.

    MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH, for providing the casting process simulation software.

    My beloved family, especially my wife and children, and good friends for their (lack of) interest, support, comfort, and for providing me with invaluable reasons not to work.

  • SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COMPONENTS

    v

    SUPPLEMENTS

    The following supplements constitute the basis of this thesis.

    Supplement I J. Olofsson: Simulation of Mechanical Behaviour of Cast Aluminium Components. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 25(6), 2012, pp. 319-327.

    Supplement II J. Olofsson, D. Larsson, I. L. Svensson: Effect of Austempering on Plastic Behavior of Some Austempered Ductile Iron Alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 42(13), 2011, pp. 3999-4007.

    Olofsson was the main author. Larsson performed the experimental work. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work.

    Supplement III J. Olofsson, I. L. Svensson: Incorporating predicted local mechanical behaviour of cast components into finite element simulations. Materials & Design, 34, 2012, pp. 494-500.

    Olofsson was the main author. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work.

    Supplement IV J. Olofsson, I. L. Svensson: Casting and stress-strain simulations of a cast ductile iron component using microstructure based mechanical behaviour. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 33 012051, 2012.

    Olofsson was the main author and presented the work at Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes XIII (MCWASP XIII) in Schladming, Austria, 17- 22 June 2012. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work.

    Supplement V J. Olofsson, I. L. Svensson: The effects of local variations in mechanical behaviour – numerical investigation of a ductile iron component. Materials & Design, 43, 2013, pp. 264-271.

    Olofsson was the main author. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work.

  • vi

    Supplement VI J. Olofsson, I. L. Svensson: Closed chain simulations of a cast aluminium component - Incorporating casting process simulation and local material characterization into stress- strain simulations. ISIJ International, 54(2), 2014, pp. 259- 265.

    Olofsson was the main author and presented the work at The 3rd International Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining (CSSCR 2013) in Helsinki, Finland, 20-23 May 2013. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work. Sample preparation, optical microscopy and tensile testing was performed by a M.Sc. student.

    Supplement VII J. Olofsson, I. L. Svensson, P. Lava and D. Debruyne: Characterisation and investigation of local variations in mechanical behaviour in cast aluminium using gradient solidification, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. Materials & Design, 56, 2014, pp. 755-762.

    Olofsson was the main author and performed the experiments. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work. Lava and Debruyne contributed with DIC software, experimental setup guidance and reviewing of the manuscript.

    Supplement VIII A. Jarfors, S. Seifeddine, J. Olofsson and I. L. Svensson: Critical Description of Defects and Mechanical Behaviour in Casting Process Modelling of Light Metals for Automotive Use. Proceedings of PFAM XXII, 2013, pp. 3-22.

    Jarfors was the main author and presented the work on Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XXII (PFAM XXII) in Singapore, 18-20 December, 2013. Seifeddine contributed with sections on microstructure and the consequences of defects. Olofsson contributed with a section on modelling and simulation of mechanical behaviour of components and performed simulations and evaluations. Svensson contributed with advice regarding the work and reviewing of the manuscript.

  • SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COMPONENTS

    vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1 1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COMPONENTS ..................................................................... 2

    CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH APPROACH ......................................................................... 11 2.1 PURPOSE AND AIM ........................................................................................................................................ 11 2.2 RES