Sharp Hops Aroma

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    Fermentation Science:

    Oregon State University

    Thomas H. Shellhammer

    Professor of Food Science

    NorWester Professor of Fermentation Science

    Daniel C. Sharp

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    Willamette Valley, Oregon

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    Training students to be brewers

    Photos courtesy of Lynn Ketchum

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    OSU Pilot Brewery

    2 BBL brewhouse, 6 CCV

    Photos cour tesy of Steve Werblow

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    OSU has a long connection to hops 1932

    Oregon largest hop producing region in the world with 34,594acres (14,000 ha)

    Downy Mildew discovered in Oregon hop yards

    U.S. Department of Agriculture establishes hop breedingprogram

    1979 Hop Research Council created

    1996 Fermentation Science track created

    within Dept of Food Science

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    Shellhammer Lab

    Hops research, recent activity Isomerization kinetics

    Bitterness research

    Native and reduced iso-alpha acids

    Hop-derived polyphenols

    Impact, time-intensity, quality

    Foam studies

    Reduced isos

    Flavor stability

    Hop-derived polyphenols

    Hop acids

    Bit

    ternessIntensity

    Tim

    etmax

    ImaxArea

    Duration

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    Shellhammer Lab

    Hops research, current projects Investigating the sources of

    citrus aroma/flavor from hops

    Hop harvest maturity influences

    on oil quality

    Basic studies on dry hopping

    How hops affect beer flavor

    stability

    New methods for assessingbeer bitterness

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    Shellhammer Lab

    Hops research, current projects Investigating the sources of

    citrus aroma/flavor from hops

    Hop harvest maturity influences

    on oil quality

    Basic studies on dry hopping

    How hops affect beer flavor

    stability

    New methods for assessingbeer bitterness

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    Hop Aroma

    What is it?

    Where does itcome from?

    How do I get it?

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    A line in the sand

    Harvest

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    Quality

    Quality is the indicator for the condition in which hopconstituents are when being added to the beer/wort, i.e.

    the definition of quality indicates whether degradation

    took place from picking to dosage.Forster, A. The quality chain from hops to hop products. In 48th IHGC Congress, Canterbury, Barth-Haas Research &

    Publications (http://www. barthhaas. com); 2001.

    The degree of reduction in quality can be

    described by a quantitative measurement of aging

    components (or correlated components).?????

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    Quality: A relative perspective

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    Assessing the aroma quality of

    hops

    Hop rubs and teas have limitations.

    Come up with at least one descriptor for

    each hop.

    Rank them in order of most preferred to

    least preffered.

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    Big Picture

    Quality Control Points

    Cultivation

    Harvest

    Kilning

    Conditioning

    Packaging

    Storage

    Heat, time, moisture and oxygen =

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    What is it?

    Chemical Composition of Hops

    SEM Image of Lupulin glandsForster, A. The quality chain from hops to hop products. In 48th

    IHGC Congress, Canterbury, Barth-Haas Research & Publications

    (http://www. barthhaas. com); 2001. NEED PERMISSION

    Kishimoto, T.; Wanikawa, A.; Kono, K.; Shibata, K. Comparison of the

    Odor-Active Compounds in Unhopped Beer and Beers Hopped with

    Different Hop Varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    2006, 54, 8855-8861. NEED PERMISSION

    Principle Components Concentration (%w/w)

    Cellulose-lignins 40.0 - 50.0

    Proteins 15.0Alpha acids 2.0 - 17.0

    Beta acids 2.0 - 10.0

    Water 8.0 - 12.0

    Minerals 8.0

    Polyphenols and tannins 3.0 - 6.0

    Lipids and fatty acids 1.0 - 5.0

    Hop oil 0.5 - 3.0

    Monosaccharides 2.0

    Pectins 2.0

    Amino acids 0.1

    European Brewery Convention Hops and Hop Products, Manual of Good

    Practice; Getranke - Fachverlag Hans Carl: Nurnberg, Germany, 1997.

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    Harvest Timing:

    Total essential oil content during hop maturation

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

    Concentration(ml/100ghops)

    Harvest time point

    Mt. Hood

    Nugget

    Galena

    Willamette

    Adapted from: Murphey, J.; Probasco, G. The Development of Brewing Quality Characteristics in Hops During Maturation. MBAA TQ 1996, 33,

    149-159.

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    Harvest Date: Oil Content by Location

    2010 Harvest

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    Concentration

    (ml/100ghops)

    Harvest Time Point

    CascadeOil volume at 8 % moisture

    Farm 1

    Farm 2

    Farm 3

    Early Typical Late

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    Concentration

    (ml/100ghops)

    Harvest Time Point

    WillametteOil volume at 8 % moisture

    Farm 1

    Farm 2

    Farm 3

    Early Typical Late

    Difference exists between hops harvested at different locations.

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    Adapted from: Eyres, G.; Dufour, J. Hop Essential Oil: Analysis, Chemical Composition and Odor Characteristics. In Beer in Health and

    Disease Prevention; Preedy, V. R., Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, 2009; pp. 239-254.

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    Composition

    Schnberger, C.; Kostelecky, T. 125th Anniversary Review: The Role of Hops in Brewing. J. Inst. Brew2011, 117, 259267.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Isoprene.svg
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    Principle Odor Compounds in Hops

    Spicy/Herbal Piney/Woody Floral Citrus Fruity/Tropical

    Epoxides Myrcene Nerol Limonene Linalool

    Eudesmol Beta-Pinene Geraniol Citral Esters

    Farnesol Alpha Pinene Geranyl Acetate Citronellol

    Caryophyllene Oxide Farnesene Linalool

    Caryophyllene Citronellol Sulphur

    Compounds

    Alpha Terpineol

    Humulene

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    Odor Active Compounds: Fresh Hops

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    Harvest Timing: Oil Profile

    Howard, G.A., Slater, C.A. Effect of Ripeness and Drying of Hops on the

    Essential Oil. J. Inst. Brew. 1958, 64, 234-237.

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    Concentration(mg/100ghops)

    Harvest Time Point

    CascadeMyrcene

    Early Typical Late

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    Aroma compound concentrations: Hallertau MF

    Adapted from: Bailey, B.; Schonberger, C.; Drexler, G.; Gahr, A.; Newman, R. The Influence of Hop Harvest Date on Hop Aroma in Dry-Hopped

    Beers. TQ 2009.

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    78

    9

    -6 -3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24

    Concentration(l/100ghop

    s)

    Harvest time point

    Linalool

    Geraniol

    Humulene Epoxide II

    Hop oil contents increased an average of 30% from day -3 to day 21..

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    Indicators of Degradation

    2010 Harvest

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    22

    24

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    Concentration(m

    g/100ghops)

    Harvest Time Point

    Cascade

    isovaleric acid

    Early Typical Late0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    22

    24

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    Concentration(m

    g/100ghops)

    Harvest Time Point

    Willamette

    isovaleric acid

    Early Typical Late

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    Preliminary brewing: Cascade

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    6.0

    7.0

    Fruit Cocktail

    Tropical fruit

    Melon

    Grapefruit

    Estery (tutti fruitti)

    Green Apple

    RoseFloral

    Green Hop

    Pine

    Apricot/Peach

    Sweaty/Onion/Garlic

    Orange

    Typical Late

    Typical harvest hops = apple, apricot/peach, and sweaty/onion/garlic notes.

    Late harvest hops = higher melon and floral notes.

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    Big Picture

    Quality Control Points

    Cultivation

    Harvest

    Kilning < 60 C

    Conditioning Humidity control

    Packaging

    Storage

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    Baling

    80 kg bales Farmers bales

    SEM Image of Lupulin glandsForster, A. The quality chain from hops to hop products. In 48th IHGC Congress, Canterbury, Barth-Haas Research & Publications (http://www. barthhaas.

    com); 2001.

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    Baling

    Forster, A. The quality chain from hops to ho