Shakespearean Tragedy Notes on Tragedy. The Tragic Hero and the Tragic Story Usually there is only...

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Shakespearean Tragedy Notes on Tragedy
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Transcript of Shakespearean Tragedy Notes on Tragedy. The Tragic Hero and the Tragic Story Usually there is only...

  • Slide 1
  • Shakespearean Tragedy Notes on Tragedy
  • Slide 2
  • The Tragic Hero and the Tragic Story Usually there is only one tragic hero Usually there is only one tragic hero The so-called Love Tragedies are exceptions to the rule. The so-called Love Tragedies are exceptions to the rule. Shakespeares tragedies are stories of one person, the hero Shakespeares tragedies are stories of one person, the hero The Love Tragedies (Romeo and Juliet; Antony and Cleopatra) are exceptions to this pattern. The Love Tragedies (Romeo and Juliet; Antony and Cleopatra) are exceptions to this pattern. The tragic story leads up to, and includes, the death of the hero. The tragic story leads up to, and includes, the death of the hero. The suffering and calamity are exceptional. The suffering and calamity are exceptional. They are contrasted with previous happiness and/or glory that took place before. They are contrasted with previous happiness and/or glory that took place before. The hero falls unexpectedly from a high place; thus, the catastrophe will be of monumental proportions. The hero falls unexpectedly from a high place; thus, the catastrophe will be of monumental proportions.
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  • Only great men qualify as tragic heroes Peasants do not inspire pity and fear as great men do. Peasants do not inspire pity and fear as great men do. A great mans fate affects the welfare of a whole nation or empire. A great mans fate affects the welfare of a whole nation or empire. A story of exceptional calamity leading to the death of a man of high estate. A story of exceptional calamity leading to the death of a man of high estate. The calamities of tragedy proceed mainly from actions of men. The calamities of tragedy proceed mainly from actions of men. Shakespeares tragic heroes are responsible for the catastrophe of their falls. Shakespeares tragic heroes are responsible for the catastrophe of their falls. In Shakespeare, the hero recognizes his own responsibility for the catastrophe which befalls him too late to prevent his death. In Shakespeare, the hero recognizes his own responsibility for the catastrophe which befalls him too late to prevent his death.
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  • The Abnormal, the Supernatural, Fate/Fortune/Chance Shakespeare occasionally represents abnormal conditions of the mind: insanity, hallucinations. Shakespeare occasionally represents abnormal conditions of the mind: insanity, hallucinations. Shakespeare introduces the supernatural: ghosts and witches. Shakespeare introduces the supernatural: ghosts and witches. Men may start a course of events but can neither calculate nor control it. Example: Desdemona lost her handkerchief at exactly the fatal moment. Men may start a course of events but can neither calculate nor control it. Example: Desdemona lost her handkerchief at exactly the fatal moment. Action of the protagonist/tragic hero is often motivated by external and internal conflicts, which lead to complications from which further conflicts arise (snowballing effect), driving the action toward a tragic resolution. Action of the protagonist/tragic hero is often motivated by external and internal conflicts, which lead to complications from which further conflicts arise (snowballing effect), driving the action toward a tragic resolution.
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  • Tragic Conflict External Internal Usually there are two persons, of whom the hero is oneor two parties or group, one of which the hero leadsor the passions, ideas, forces which animate these persons or groups. Usually there are two persons, of whom the hero is oneor two parties or group, one of which the hero leadsor the passions, ideas, forces which animate these persons or groups. The conflict between the group ends with the defeat of the hero. The conflict between the group ends with the defeat of the hero. Shakespeares tragic hero, though he pursues his fated way, is torn by an inward struggle. Shakespeares tragic hero, though he pursues his fated way, is torn by an inward struggle. Includes the action of spiritual forces. Includes the action of spiritual forces. These spiritual forces include doubts, desires, scruples, ideaswhatever can shake, possess, animate, and drive a mans soul.
  • Slide 6
  • Common Qualities of the Tragic Hero/Protagonist They are exceptional beings: fundamental trait. They are exceptional beings: fundamental trait. They contribute to their own destruction by actions they take in which we see a flaw in their character. They contribute to their own destruction by actions they take in which we see a flaw in their character. They have a fatal gift (fierce, determination, fixed ideas) and when nobility of mind, or genius are joined to it, we realize the full power and the conflict which it engages which stirs not only sympathy and pity, but admiration, terror, and awe. They have a fatal gift (fierce, determination, fixed ideas) and when nobility of mind, or genius are joined to it, we realize the full power and the conflict which it engages which stirs not only sympathy and pity, but admiration, terror, and awe. The flaw often takes the form of obsession. The flaw often takes the form of obsession. Shakespeares tragic heroes are generally good. Shakespeares tragic heroes are generally good.
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  • The Tragic Pattern (Summary) Dealing with a man of high estate: a king, a prince, a general, etc. Dealing with a man of high estate: a king, a prince, a general, etc. Normally, we will hear about the tragic hero from others before he makes an entrance in the playthis is where we are given the first impression of the greatness of the tragic hero through the eyes of others. Normally, we will hear about the tragic hero from others before he makes an entrance in the playthis is where we are given the first impression of the greatness of the tragic hero through the eyes of others. Within the first two acts, we will become aware of a driving force within the hero that is almost, obsessive in nature. Within the first two acts, we will become aware of a driving force within the hero that is almost, obsessive in nature. As the inner and outer conflicts become more apparent as the hero pursues his course, time becomes more important. As the inner and outer conflicts become more apparent as the hero pursues his course, time becomes more important. The pace and urgency pick up in the third act. The pace and urgency pick up in the third act. Contributing to and furthering the obsession of the tragic flaw are supernatural suggestion, and accident or chance. Contributing to and furthering the obsession of the tragic flaw are supernatural suggestion, and accident or chance.
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  • (Summary continued) As the flaw continue, new conflicts arise which bring about the death or alienation of all forms of support for the hero, so that by the end, he must face the consequences alone. As the flaw continue, new conflicts arise which bring about the death or alienation of all forms of support for the hero, so that by the end, he must face the consequences alone. What we see during alienation is suffering, sleeplessness, rage, confusion, and violence. What we see during alienation is suffering, sleeplessness, rage, confusion, and violence. At some point, the hero will realize his error that is bringing about his fall. At some point, the hero will realize his error that is bringing about his fall. Knowing that he alone is to blame is called the Tragic Recognition. Tragic recognition occurs when there is no time to correct the error: it is too late. Knowing that he alone is to blame is called the Tragic Recognition. Tragic recognition occurs when there is no time to correct the error: it is too late.
  • Slide 9
  • Tragic Structure Tragedy can be divided into 4 parts. EXPOSITIONWe are made aware of the general setting, persons, character traits, problems, and potential conflicts. We also know who our protagonist or tragic hero is. EXPOSITIONWe are made aware of the general setting, persons, character traits, problems, and potential conflicts. We also know who our protagonist or tragic hero is. DEVELOPMENTComprising the 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th acts. This consists of the beginning, growth, and nature of the conflict. It unveils the complications arising from the conflicts. The tragic hero begins to alienate his allies, until he is alone. DEVELOPMENTComprising the 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th acts. This consists of the beginning, growth, and nature of the conflict. It unveils the complications arising from the conflicts. The tragic hero begins to alienate his allies, until he is alone. DEVELOPMENT:FALLING ACTIONTakes place late in the 4 th act. Opposing forces begin to resist and to make place for the removal of the tragic hero, and the heros power is declining. DEVELOPMENT:FALLING ACTIONTakes place late in the 4 th act. Opposing forces begin to resist and to make place for the removal of the tragic hero, and the heros power is declining. TRAGIC RESOLUTIONIn the final act, the opposition defeats/destroys the isolated weakened hero and order becomes restored. TRAGIC RESOLUTIONIn the final act, the opposition defeats/destroys the isolated weakened hero and order becomes restored.
  • Slide 10
  • Background to Othello
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  • THE THEMES
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  • Othello Jealousy Hypocrisy Passion Prejudice Revenge
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  • TERMS TO KNOW
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  • Important Dramatic Terms Tragedya drama of a solemn and dignified quality that typically depicts the development of a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force, such as fate, circumstance, or society, and reaches a mournful or ruinous conclusion.
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  • Othello A Shakespearean Tragedy Othello is a Shakespearean Tragedy Othello is a Shakespearean Tragedy It encompasses elements of tragedies such as: It encompasses elements of tragedies such as: It ends with the death of numerous characters including the title character It ends with the death of numerous characters including the title character The protagonist is admirable, but flawed, with the audience able to understand and sympathise with the character. The protagonist is admirable, but flawed, with the audience able to understand and sympathise with the character. The protagonist is capable of both good and evil The protagonist is capable of both good and evil Free will is insisted upon the protagonist must always be able to back out of a situation or to redeem themselves but always towards their inevitable doom. Free will is insisted upon the protagonist must always be able to back out of a situation or to redeem themselves but always towards their inevitable doom.
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  • Important Dramatic Terms Tragic flawa defect in the protagonist that brings about his or her downfall. Hubris: derived from the Greek word hybris, means excessive pride. In Greek tragedy, hubris is often viewed as the flaw that leads to the downfall of the tragic hero.
  • Slide 17
  • Important Dramatic Terms Tragic hero: the main character of great importance to his state or culture and who is conventionally of noble birth and high social station, the ruler or an important leader in his society. The moral health of the state is identified with, and dependent on, that of its ruler, and so the tragic heros story is also that of his state.
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  • Important Dramatic Terms Such heroes are mixed characters, neither thoroughly good or thoroughly evil, yet better or greater than the rest of us in the sense that they are of higher than ordinary moral worth and social significance.
  • Slide 19
  • THE SETTING
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  • Setting Setting (time) Late sixteenth century, during the wars between Venice and Turkey Setting (place) Venice in Act I; the island of Cyprus thereafter
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  • http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcitaly.htm
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  • http://geography.about.com/library/cia/nccyprus.htm Cyprus is located east of Italy, in the Mediterranean Sea. It is just south of Turkey.
  • Slide 23
  • THE CHARACTERS
  • Slide 24
  • Types of People in Othello Venetians Most are noblemen and women (Brabantio, Desdemona, Roderigo) Also, there are the nobles servants (Emilia) Some are soldiers (Othello, Cassio, Iago) Others are part of Venetian government (the Duke)
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  • Types of People (contd) Moors Black nomadic people of the northern shores of Africa, originally the inhabitants of Mauretania Converted to Islam in the 8 th century
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  • Moors (contd) Invaded Spain in 711 and dominated until the 11 th century had great dynasties up until 1492, when the last of their cities was conquered by Spain virtually exterminated by Spain during the Inquisition (late 1400s- 1820)
  • Slide 27
  • Moors (contd) Othello is a Moor Discriminated against because of his race (black) Othello has been accepted in some ways because he is a Christian and a military genius Yet his marriage to Desdemona reflects the prevailing view toward interracial marriage.
  • Slide 28
  • Slide 29
  • Iago Iago is one of Shakespeares most sinister villains, often considered so because of the unique trust Othello puts in him, which he betrays while maintaining his reputation of honesty and dedication. Iago is one of Shakespeares most sinister villains, often considered so because of the unique trust Othello puts in him, which he betrays while maintaining his reputation of honesty and dedication. Shakespeare contrasts Iago with Othellos nobility and integrity. Shakespeare contrasts Iago with Othellos nobility and integrity. Iago is a malcontent he has a bitter and cyncial view of the world around him. Iago is a malcontent he has a bitter and cyncial view of the world around him. The name Iago is a shortened version of the Spanish name Santiago or St James. The name Iago is a shortened version of the Spanish name Santiago or St James. Saint James of Spain was also known as St James the Moor Killer which seems appropriate within the play. Saint James of Spain was also known as St James the Moor Killer which seems appropriate within the play.
  • Slide 30
  • THE CULTURE OF THE TIME
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  • The Wifes Status A typical wife receiving her instruction The husband, in the accepted role as head of the household, gives moral direction to his wife and children--who sit obediently listening. The husband, in the accepted role as head of the household, gives moral direction to his wife and children--who sit obediently listening.
  • Slide 32
  • Evil Women! The men in Othello have differing views of women from Othello who idolizes his wife (Desdemona) to Iago who sees love as "merely a lust of the blood and a permission of the will. The attitudes of the audience at the time are likely to have been varied too. In the Elizabethan times there was a long and well established tradition in the Church of what we would now call misogyny women were distrusted simply because they were women. At the time it was assumed that women would cheat it was part of their nature!
  • Slide 33
  • The Cuckold Any man whose wife cheated on him (without his knowledge) was known as a cuckold. The word derives from cuckoo the bird known for laying their eggs in anothers nest. It was highly undesirable to be considered a cuckold. All of the community would find out about it and it was considered a public humiliation. Cuckolds were often described as having horns a hangover from the days when a cuckold was forced to parade around his town wearing antlers as a sign of his wifes infidelity.
  • Slide 34
  • LETS TALK ABOUT IT
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  • Jealousy Jealousy was viewed as something irrational and linked to the deadly sin of envy. Jealousy was viewed as something irrational and linked to the deadly sin of envy. It was viewed as a sudden infection against which there was no prevention or cure. It was viewed as a sudden infection against which there was no prevention or cure. It was thought of as eroding trust and it dissolved the bonds holding together marriages, families and social frameworks. It was thought of as eroding trust and it dissolved the bonds holding together marriages, families and social frameworks. Being jealous could let in evil and chaos and it was a state greatly feared by Shakespeares audiences. Being jealous could let in evil and chaos and it was a state greatly feared by Shakespeares audiences.
  • Slide 36
  • Task On the following slide are some lines spoken by, or about, various characters in the play consider what you think each quotation reveals about the person speaking/being spoken about and what they are like as a character. On the following slide are some lines spoken by, or about, various characters in the play consider what you think each quotation reveals about the person speaking/being spoken about and what they are like as a character.
  • Slide 37
  • 1) Iago - describing Othello: loving his own pride and purposes 2) Iago - speaking about his relationship with Othello: I follow him to serve my turn upon him 3) Iago - speaking about himself: I am not what I am. 4) Othello - speaking about himself: My parts, my title and my perfect soul shall manifest me rightly 5) Othello - about Iago: A man he is of honesty and trust.
  • Slide 38
  • Quotations on Deception Do you agree? We are never deceived; we deceive ourselves. We are never deceived; we deceive ourselves.We are never deceived; we deceive ourselves. Deception is a cruel act... It often has many players on different stages that corrode the soul. Deception is a cruel act... It often has many players on different stages that corrode the soul.Deception is a cruel act... It often has many players on different stages that corrode the soul. It's better to get something worthwhile done using deception than to fail to get something worthwhile done using truth. t's better to get something worthwhile done using deception than to fail to get something worthwhile done using truth.t's better to get something worthwhile done using deception than to fail to get something worthwhile done using truth. Truth lives on in the midst of deception Truth lives on in the midst of deceptionTruth lives on in the midst of deception
  • Slide 39
  • Todays society - TASK Think about the cultural rules that you live by. Look at the questions opposite and discuss/make notes. What rules dictate the behaviour of young men and women in relationships today? What rules dictate the behaviour of young men and women in relationships today? What are the things nice girls just dont do? What are the things nice girls just dont do? What are the things nice boys just dont do? What are the things nice boys just dont do? What do you think the consequences are of breaking these rules? What do you think the consequences are of breaking these rules?
  • Slide 40
  • Brief but Naughty http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v QGATTeg1Os Othello Rap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= UC-f0drvdmM Enjoy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v QGATTeg1Os https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= UC-f0drvdmM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v QGATTeg1Os https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= UC-f0drvdmM