Seven wonders of world

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PROJECT

PROJECTSUBJECT:ENGLISH

THEME:SEVEN MIRACLES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

DONE BY: EGLI TAFAGreat Wall of ChinaGreat Wall of China is a series of fortications made of stone,brick,tamped earth wood and other materials,generally built along an east-to-west line across historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusionsby various nomadic groups .The wall built from 220-260BC by the first Emeperor of China , Qin Shi Huang.The main Great Wall line stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to Lop Lake in the west.This is made up of 6.259 km.

2History of Great WallThe Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall bulding by the time of spring and autumn between the 8th and 5th centuries.During this time the states of Qin,Wei,Zhao,Yan all constructed extensive fortifications to defend their own borders .Qin Shi Huang conquered all opposing states and unifed China.To potion the empire against the Xiongnu people from the north, he ordered the building of new walls to connect the remaining fortifications along the empires northern frontier.Transporting the large material required is difficult.

Egyptian pyramidsThe ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008.Most were built tombs for the countrys Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kindom periods.The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara , northwest of Memphis.The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser which was build during the third dynasty.The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cario Several of the Giza pyramids.The estimate of the number of workers to build the pyramids range from a few thousand, twenty thousand and up to 100.000.

All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead Egyptian mythology.In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius produced the firt modern list of pyramids- see Lepsius list of pyramids- in which he counted 67.A great many more have since been discovered.As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the Headless Pyramid was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert sands.

Lighthouse of AlexandriaTheLighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called thePharos of Alexandria was a lofty tower between 280 and 247 BC and between 393 and 450ft (120 and 137m) tall. Pharos was a small island just off the coast of theNile Deltas western edge. In 332 BC whenAlexander the Greatfounded the city of Alexandria opposite to Pharos, he caused the island to be united to the coast by a molemore than three-quarters of a mile long (1260 m/4,100+ feet) The east side of the mole became the Great Harbour

The lighthouse was constructed in the 3rd century BC. AfterAlexander the Greatdied of a fever at age 32, the first Ptolemy announced himself king in 305 BC, and commissioned its construction shortly thereafter. The building was finished during the reign of his son, the second Ptolemy . It took 12years to complete, at a total cost of 800talentns and served as aprototypefor all laterlighthousesin the world. Judith McKenzie writes that "The Arab descriptions of the lighthouse are remarkably consistent, although it was repaired a number of times especially after earthquake damage. In 796, the lighthouse may have lost its upper tier, which apparently went without repair for about a century.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

TheHanging Gardens of Babylonwere one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one whose location has not been definitely established. Traditionally they were said to have been built in the ancient city ofBabylon. According to one legend, Nebuchadnezzar II built the Hanging Gardens for his Median wife,Queen Amytis, because she missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland. He also built a grand palace that came to be known as 'The Marvel of the Mankind'.

To date, no archaeological evidence has been found at Babylon for the Hanging Gardens. It is possible that evidence exists beneath the Euphrates, which cannot be excavated safely at present. The river flowed east of its current position during the time of NebuchadnezzarII, and little is known about the western portion of Babylon. A recent theory proposes that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were actually constructed by the AssyriankingSennacherib(reigned 704 681BC) for his palace atNineveh.

SphynksAsphinxis amythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of alionand a human head. Greek tradition, it has the haunches of a lion, sometimes with the wings of a great bird, and the face of a human. It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless.The largest and most famous sphinx is theGreat Sphinx of Giza, situated at theGiza Plateau adjacent to theGreat Pyramids of Giza on the west bank of theNile River and facing due east (295831N310815E). The sphinx is located to the east of and below the pyramids.

What names their builders gave to thesestatuesis not known. the Great Sphinx site, the inscription on astelebyThutmose IVin 1400 BCE, lists the names of three aspects of the local sun deity of that period,KheperaRAtumPerhaps .The first sphinx in Egypt was one depictingQueen Hetepheres II, of thefourth dynastythat lasted from 2723 BCE to 2563. She was one of the longest-lived members of the royal family of that dynasty. The Great Sphinx has become an emblem of Egypt, frequently appearing on its stamps, coins, and official documents

11ColoseumTheColosseumorColiseum, also known as theFlavian Amphitheatreis an ellipticalamphitheatrein the centre of the city ofRome,Italy. Built ofconcreteand stone,it was the largest amphitheatre of theRoman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works ofRomam architectureandengineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world. The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators,and was used forgladiatorial contests andpublic spectaclessuch asmock sea battles,animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based onClassical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in theearly medievalera. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, afortress, aquarry, and a Christian shrine.

The Colosseum's original Latin name wasAmphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized asFlavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of theFlavian dynasty, following the reign ofNero.This name is still used inmodern English, but generally the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial nameAmphitheatrum Caesareum(adjective pertaining to the titleCaesar), but this name may have been strictly poeticas it was not exclusive to the Colosseum; Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed anamphitheater of the same nameinPuteoli(modern Pozzuoli). Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the EmperorVespasian in around 7072 AD, funded by the spoils taken from theJewish Templeafter theSiege of Jerusalem.

ParthenonTheParthenonAncientGreekModern Greek is a formertemple on theAthenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to thegoddessAthena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447BC when theAthenian Empirewas at the height of its power. It was completed in 438BC although decoration of the building continued until 432BC. It is the most important surviving building ofClassical Greece, generally considered the zenith of theDoric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points ofGreek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol ofAncient Greece,Athenian democracyand western civilization,and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.

The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon orOlder Parthenon, that was destroyed in thePersian invasionof 480BC. The temple isarchaeoa stronomicallyaligned to theHyades. While a sacred building dedicated to the city's patron goddess, the Parthenon was actually used primarily as atreasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of theDelian League, which later became theAthenian Empire. In the 5th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into aChristianchurch dedicated to theVirgin Mary. The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word (parthenon), which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple. It is debated which room this is and how the room acquired its name.