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  • 1. Designing GBL forLearningDavid

2. What is the point ofGBL?You will have heard a *lot* about motivation andserious games.Is that all SG / GBL have to offer?If so, what is special about games? 3. Chen & Wang 2009Engaging learners in the learning process is thepre-requisite for effective e-learning.However, making learning more engaging relieson considerate design of learning activitiesC&W argue for the value of interactivity in qualitylearningThus - games - but what is considerate design? 4. Learning TheoriesTwo main schools: Objectivism Learning == transfer of knowledge Constructivism Learning == individuals creating their own version of knowledge 5. ObjectivismSkinnerBehaviourism / Operant ConditioningFarmville?Also Atkinson / Gagne 6. Procedural /DeclarativeWe have evidence to support games for simpledeclarative / procedural knowledge improvement.Skill and Drill / Edutainmentfactual & procedural knowledge depend onstrength of memory and ease of recallso all you have to do is repeat until its musclememory. Memory, not thought. 7. Skill & Drill PedagogyMotivation of games is the main benefit.Goal is repeated practice of a skill until automaticMath Blaster, Brain Training, training gamesGamification type approaches to incentivise 8. ConstructivismKnowledge is created through contact betweenthoughts and the world.The model is IN YOUR HEAD and is modified byhow you interpret input you get.Dewey / Piaget / Vygotski / Bruner / Gardiner /Papert 9. Daniel WillinghamMotor learning is the change in capacity toperform skilled movements that achievebehavioural goals in the environment. Afundamental and unresolved question inneuroscience is whether there are specific neuralsystems for representing sequential motorresponses. Defining such systems with brainimaging and other methods requires a carefuldelineation of what specifically is being learned fora given sequencing task. 10. Daniel WillinghamA chiffon cake replaces butter the traditional fatin cakes with oil. A fundamental and unresolvedquestion in baking is when to make a butter cakeand when to make a chiffon cake. Answering thisquestion with expert tasting panels and othermethods requires a careful description of whatcharacteristics are required for a cake. 11. SchemaWe dont easily store facts, we have networks ofrelated concepts.When we encounter something new, weunderstand it in context of what we already know.So knowledge creating is a subtle modifying overtime of these networks of concepts. 12. Games asMicroworldsThe Shaffer & Svarovski paper I spoke about lastweek (SodaConstructing) introduces twoconcepts:Exploratoids (extension of Explanatoid)Microworlds (robust simulation of some domain) 13. Problem BasedLearningStep 1: Topic Introduction - why its importantStep 2: problem statementStep 3: generate hypothesesStep 4: acquire dataStep 5: test hypothesis 14. So why didnt this game teach? 15. Kristian Kiili: PBL 16. ConstructiveAlignmentBiggs 1996:Learners construct meaning from what they doTeacher makes deliberate alignment betweenplanned learning activities and desired learningoutcomes. 17. So heres my ideaCognitive Walkthrough for Learning ThroughGame MechanicsCWLTGM! 18. CognitiveWalkthroughOne or more experts will walk through a set ofsteps required to accomplish a task.Before beginning, you detail as much as you canabout:What the user knowsWhat steps are required to accomplish the taskThen you walk through each step questioning: 19. CW Questions1: Will the user try to achieve the right effect?2:Will the user notice that the correct action isavailable?3: Will the user associate the correctaction with the effect to be achieved?4: If thecorrect action is performed, will the user see thatprogress is being made toward solution of thetask? 20. Success or failurestoryFor each step you try to come up with a(believable) success or failure story.the user knows to click the print icon becauseshe recognises the shape of the printer asrepresenting the print functionthe user fails to find the left-align icon becauseshe does not know to expand the hiddenicons area 21. Cognitive Walkthrough allthe things! 22. CW for GBLI did two things:ContextualiseExtend 23. Contextualise: InputsWho are players and what do they know?What are the desired learning outcomes of thetask?How are game and domain entities represented?What are the interactions required for player tolearn the content 24. Contextualise:walkthroughStep 1: will player attempt the desired task?Step 2: Will player understand what game actionswould achieve the task?Step 3: Will player associate their correct action asmaking progress towards task completion?Assuming player executes correct actions, is itreasonable to expect learning to take place? 25. Step 4/1List every logical connection that must be made by the playerin order to learn through playing this part of the game.Must the player recognise domain-entity mappings?Must player understand semantic meaning of an animationor in-game action to subject domain?How many game elements must the player consider at onceto understand the subject domain system?Generally - you want to avoid making LEAPS of logic, youwant to detail each small logical link. 26. Step 4/2For each of the logical links identify - reconsider itand ask if it is actually two or more steps of logic -if so, split it by just FORMALLY going over each item, youfind mistakesRinse and repeat 27. Step 4/3When you are satisfied that each link is explicit, consider eachlogical link and ask whether it is reasonable to expect the playerto make this connection / logical inference.Will the imagined player understand the visual metaphors?Will the player read and understand required text?Will the players attention be drawn to the elements mentionedin the logical link?Will the players understand the relationship between the in-game entities, but fail to recognise how that applies to thesubject domain? 28. At the end of step 4This is where you write your success or failurestory for each item of your logical chain.I categorise into low, medium, or high risk. 29. Whats the point?Firstly, we can understand WHY things worked ordid not work in a given design.But more powerfully (in theory) by applying thetechnique to designs PRIOR to implementation,we can identify flaws that would not be spotted. 30. What nextI have handouts:The e-Bug evaluation paper (has the tableexplaining results)An overview of Cog WalkMy (in progress) Cog Walk paperI want you to read these before the lab if you can. 31. LabsBetween now and the labs, Im going to move tothe next turn of CareerQuest.So well do that in the labs for 5 mins.The rest of the lab will be you applying CWLTGMto evaluate the white blood cell bit of the game.I want to see if you end up with the same answersas me! 32. ReferencesChen, M., & Wang, L. (2009). The Effects of Type of Interactivity in Experiential Game-Based Learning, 273282.Svarovsky, G., & Shaffer, D. (2006). Sodaconstructing an Understanding of Physics: Technology-BasedEngineering Activities for Middle School Students. Proceedings. Frontiers in Education. 36th AnnualConference, 1723. doi:10.1109/FIE.2006.322594Farrell, David (City University, L., Kostkova, P (City University, L., Lecky, D. (Health P. A., & McNulty, C.(Health P. A. (2009). Teaching Children Hygiene Using Problem Based Learning: The Story TellingApproach to Games Based Learning. International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL), SecondWorkshop on Story-Telling and Educational Games (Vol. 37).Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why dont students like school: A cognitive scientist answers questions abouthow the mind works and what it means for the classroom. Jossey-Bass.Queens University, Problem Based Learning., J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education. Retrieved from, C., & Rieman, J. (1994). The cognitive walkthrough method: A practitioners guide. In J. Nielsen &R. Mack (Eds.), Usability Inspection Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from