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Power of One Apartheid Notes

Transcript of Sept 23 24 Ppt

  • 1.Agenda Sept. 23/24 2009 Take out Portfolios, HW, and HW Sheet1. Capitalization: Only write the words that need to be capitalized. Some dutch tulips were growing by metrocenter mall in phoenix. 2.Punctuation:Which answer is theBEST ANSWER. The sun is high, put on some sunscreen. A. Correct B.high; soC. high. SoD. high, so 3. Sentence or Fragment? Writesentenceorfragmentfor each letter. a.A story with deep thoughts and emotions. b.Leaving her team at a time when we needed her. c.I like people who pat my head and give me treats. 4. Sentence Combining: Rewrite these sentences into one sentence. Parker's friends ate his food.They sprawled on his sofa.They pretended to listen to what he said. 5 . Sentence Imitation: The mental picture of himself sliding along the edge outside was absurd---it was actually comical---and he smiled.

2. Answers

  • 1. Capitalization: Only write the words that need to be capitalized.
  • Somed utch tulips were growing bym etrocenterm all inp hoenix.
  • 2.Punctuation:Which answer is theBEST ANSWER.
  • The sun is high, put on some sunscreen.
  • A. Correct B.high; soC. high. SoD. high, so
  • 3. Sentence or Fragment? Writesentenceorfragment
  • a.A story with deep thoughts and emotions. fragment
  • b.Leaving her team at a time when we needed her .fragment
  • c.I like people who pat my head and give me treats.sentence
  • 4. Sentence Combining: Rewrite these sentences into one sentence.
  • Parker's friends ate his food, sprawled on his sofa, andpretended to listen to what he said.
  • Pretending to listen to what he said, Parkers friends sprawled on his couch and ate his food.
  • 5 . Sentence Imitation:
  • The mental picture of himself sliding along the edge outside was absurd---it was actually comical---and he smiled.

3. Mandala Presentations Continued 4. Collect Remaining Mandalas and Poems

  • Dont forget to file the rest of your mandala work into the writing section of your portfolio!

5. Honors Journal

  • Write for 10 minutes ondiscussion question you received. Use thePower of Onetext as a reference.
  • After the mingling activity, this journal should be stored in theWritingsection of their portfolio .

6. Mingling Discussion: Maintain posture and professionalism

  • Round 1:Find the person who shares your question---discuss your responses (purpose is to better understand the question in order to be able to competently discuss your question and ideas with the next 2 partners).
  • Round 2 and 3:Meet with new partners and discuss questions and responses (both partners must engage in the conversation by asking questions and adding on to what each other has to say.

7. Introduction to the Power of One 8. Bryce Courtenay

  • Much ofThe Power of Oneis based on Bryce Courtenay's own life.
    • Courtenay was born in 1933 in South Africa.
    • At five years of age, he was sent to a boarding school, which was a mixture between a reform school and an orphans' home. Here he learned how to box in order to survive.
    • He then moved to Barberton in the North Eastern part of South Africa and met a German music teacher called Doc.
    • Courtenay attended a prestigious private high school, and then studied journalism at an English university.
    • He was banned from returning to South Africa since he had initiated a weekend school for black people at his high school.

9. Ponder and discuss these questions as you make connections throughout this lesson.

  • Can you think of any current or historical similarities between the described apartheid system in Africa and the U.S.?
  • Can you think of any current or historical similarities between the colonization of the Americas and the colonization of Africa?

10. Historical Background

  • Anglo - Boer War Between 1899 and 1902
  • Boers, white Dutch settlers, came and settled in Africa before the English/British
  • An army of 500,000 British fought against a clan of 87,000 Boers to take control of the land
  • The main protagonists of the war -Great Britain and two Boer republics -were mainly white
  • English wanted all of South Africa to come under English rule
  • Hostility and segregation between English (Rooinek) and Boers (Afrikaans) continued until the end of official apartheid 1994

11. Historical Background

  • First Concentration Camps
  • Started by English
  • Both blacks and white Boers were imprisoned
  • 37 black concentration camps are recorded and
  • These camps held an estimated total of 11,500 people at the height of their existence.

12. The Beginning of Apartheid

  • In 1948 the Afrikaner Nationalist Party gained control of the South African Parliament, and established the system known asapartheid.
  • Apartheid means "separateness" or "apartness" and included 317 lawswhich reserved civil rights for 5 million whites and denied them to 25 million blacks.
  • All citizens were classified by race
  • Marriage and sexual relations across color lines were made illegal
  • Separate living areas; whites get all of the best, over 80% of the population was crowded into areas which covered less than 13% of the total land mass.
  • Economic development was outlawed in black "homelands." Jobs were made available only in white areas.
  • All non-whites must carry a passbook at all times
  • All public places were segregated

13. Apartheid: What is interesting about these stats? Whole class discussion

  • Translated from Afrikaans, apartheid means apartness. The term is used to describe the legalized racist policy of the National Party (NP) between 1948 and (officially) 1994. Its roots can be found in South Africa's earlier policies of segregation. The only relationship that black people were allowed to have with white people was one in which they served them.

14. Divisions of Apartheid

  • The Nationalists argued that the people did not constitute a single nation but made up four race groups, namelywhite, black, coloured, and Indian .These races were further divided into 13 nations.
    • White people comprised English and Afrikaans language groups.
    • The black population was divided into 10 ethnic groups.
    • This made the white race the largest one in the country.

15. Pass Laws

  • The movement of black people was severely limited. Black people could only stay in white South Africa if they possessed documents proving they had permission to do so. The laws restricting the movement of people were known as Pass Laws.
  • The Urban Areas Act of 1945 outlined requirements for African people to qualify to live legally in urban areas in white South Africa. In order to do so they had to have Section 10 rights. These rights were based on whether:
    • The person had been born there and resided there continuously since birth;
    • The person had worked continuously for ten years in any prescribed area for any employer; or lived continuously in any such area for a period not less than 10 years;
    • The person was the wife, unmarried daughter, or son under 18 years of age of an African falling into classes (a) or (b), and ordinarily resided with him, and initially entered the area lawfully; or
    • The person had been granted a permit to remain by a labor bureau.

16. The BantuSelf-Government Act

  • The Bantu Self-Government Act further divided the whites from the African tribes and changed the political and geographic shape of South Africa. The Bantu Act declared that blacks must live with other members of their ethnic group in specifically established areas or reserves.This law created a South Africa with a white center and a cluster of black states along its borders. This law paved the way for the government to forcibly remove blacks from their long-time homes and forced them to resettle in assigned areas.The introduction to the Act read:
  • "The bantu people of the Union of South Africa do not constitute a homogenous people but form separate national units on the basis of language and culture."
  • Instead the government broke down the assigning of people to specific areas based on their tribal/culture heritage and language.

17. Resistance

  • Resistance began in the 1950's, the first outbreak of violence occurred in 1960 and was known as the Sharpville Massacre, 69 peopled were killed and 180 wounded by South African police.
  • Nelson Mandela rose to leadership of the African National Congress (ANC), but was arrested in 1964 and imprisoned for 26 years.
  • In the early 1970's Steven Biko founded the "Black Consciousness" movement patterned after the "Black Power" movement in the United States.Biko was arrested, tortured, then killed while in police custody in 1977.
  • In 1976 thousands of students protested in a black