Separating methods and colour mixing (PROJECT)

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SCIENCE: This ppt. will tell you the separating methods, like filtration, magnetic separation, centrifugation, distillation. Plus it will also help you give information in colour mixing.

Transcript of Separating methods and colour mixing (PROJECT)

  • Filtration
  • Filtration is the most common technique to remove the solid material. Mix the sand/salt with water. The salt dissolves, the sand does not. Pour through a filter to separate the sand, then heat the salt water to drive off the water. All physical changes. Explanation
  • Magnetic Separation
  • Explanation Ore is an impure metal containing large amount of sand and rocky material. The impurities like sand, rocky materials, limestone, mica etc present in the ore is called gangue or matrix. These impurities must be removed from the ore before the extraction of the metal. The substance added to the ore to remove the matrix called flux results in the formation of a fusible compound called slag. The processes used for removing the gangue from the ore are based on the differences between the physical or chemical properties of the gangue and the ore. At first the ore is crushed to powder. The pulverized ore is separated by physical processes like hydraulic washing, froth-floatation, and magnetic separation or by chemical processes, depending on the nature of the ore and its impurities. Concentration of the ore is also known as 'dressing' or 'enrichment' of ore.
  • Centrifugation
  • Explanation centrifugation is when the heavier particles are separated from the liquid. Example: blood, they put a tube (with blood in it) in a machine that rotates at profound speed to pull all heavy particles (blood cells) in the blood to the side of the tube, hence separating the blood cells from the liquid of the blood. a simpler example: when a car turns around the corner (lets say turning to the left), you feel a force pulling you to the right. that is centrifugal force
  • Distillation
  • Explanation Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected. Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature and/or pressure.
  • Explanation Distillation is used for many commercial processes, such as production of gasoline, distilled water, xylene, alcohol, paraffin, kerosene, and many other liquids. Types of distillation include simple distillation (described here), fractional distillation (different volatile 'fractions' are collected as they are produced), and destructive distillation (usually, a material is heated so that it decomposes into compounds for collection).
  • NOTE: (ii) Use of filters is already explained on the PowerPoint file name: Q5 (ii)