Seeing is Believing’ presentation

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    Use of all senses (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic,Olfactory) to re-create or create experience inthe mind.

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    WHAT DO THINK THE BENEFITS ARE?

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    Imagery should involve as many senses as possible

    Sport psychologists have looked at 3 different kinds ofevidence to see if imagery enhances performance.

    Anecdotal reports, case studies and scientificexperiments.

    Athletes usually take either an internal or externalperspective for viewing their imagery

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    Athletes that use imagery can use imagery inmany ways to improve both physical andpsychological skills. Uses include improving

    concentration, building confidence, controllingemotional responses, acquiring and practisingsport skills and strategies, and coping withpain or injury.

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    Before andafter

    practice

    Duringpersonal

    time

    Whenrecoveringfrom injury

    Duringbreaks in

    action

    During offseason

    Before andafter

    competition

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    Motor imagery as a force generating image of self in action

    from first person (internal) perspective (Jeannerod, (197)

    Required =

    Motor imagery must involve sequential organization of actions.

    Recalling information from past experiences and shaping

    meaningful images, this includes senses, moods and emotions

    experienced.

    Seeing success

    Physical Mental

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    Start simple and progress (simple but stableenvironment skill, i.e. a free throw in basketball)

    If athlete performs the skill well, encourage them

    to form a mental image of the skill being executedand how it felt at the moment of release

    Encourage the athlete to visualise excelling inareas before they compete or practice

    Haphazard use is no good needs to be regularand systematic

    Imagery uses more than just visualization needto use all the senses to create or re-createexperiences

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    Certain situations can cause stress imagineyourself in a place that makes you happy andcalm inside and controls the stress you feel.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXrRivLdueE

    If your still distracted it can lead to poor

    performance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DWKijJ9

    n-VQ&feature=related

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    Developed by Holmes and Collins (2001),

    Initial research shows PETTLEP model is highly effective in producingperformance gains

    Involves a 7 point check-list

    P PhysicalE EnvironmentT TaskT- Timing

    L Learning -E Emotion P Perspective

    o Explored the effect of short term PETTLEP imagery involvement, incomparison to the traditional theory in a cognitive task.

    o PETTLEP produces a realistic and more functionally equal imagery

    Knackstedt,paul, M.S ( 2011)

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    MotorImagery

    Physical

    Environment

    Task

    TimingLearning

    Emotion

    Perspective

    Reflects the physical nature of actual

    situation

    Physicalsurroundings

    similarity of task isimaged to actual taskbeing performed

    image performed at thesame pace

    include all emotions andarousal chartacaitlaclly.

    way image is viewed internal/external

    Imagery should beadapted in response tolearning.

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    Psychoneuromu-scluar Theory

    (Jacobson, 1931)

    Speaks to themechanisminside the brainthat triggermuscularresponse andability of MI totrigger the

    same responseas doesphysicalactivity.

    SymbolicLearning theory( Sackett,1934)

    Follows thecognitiveframework ofinformationmental blueprint andlearning

    Bioinformationaltheory

    (lang, 1979)

    Behaviouralview ofactivatingstoredenvironmentaland stimulusresponses inorder to better

    perform a task.

    PETTLEP(Holmes and

    Collins (2011)

    Providesfunctionalequivalencebetweenimaged actionand the actualexecution ofthe task.

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    Importance of PETTLEP

    Emotion component = encourages the individual

    to experience arousal linked with the performance,this therefore is beneficial effect as it can help toimprove self-efficacy

    Having high self efficiency induces the belief oftheir own ability to exercise regularly, hence, whyfrequent exercisers use of imagery more.

    commonly used the frequent exerciser than the lessfrequent.

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    www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8jBkIT3wTA Split in three groups

    Come up with one sport and one skill, using sheets provided

    developed a PETTLEP model you as a coach can develop an

    athletes performance in your choose skill.

    Each group should have different sports i.e.

    - Group 1 - Gymnastics,- Group 2 - football,

    - Group 3 - badminton,

    10 MINS to develop a PETTLEP imagery scene

    As a group you are going to briefly present to the class.

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    Hockey penalty flicks

    Two separate six week imagery interventions

    Physical and environmental components ofPETTLEP were manipulated.

    Involved three intervention groups performing imagery of 10 penalty kicks daily

    for 6 weeks.

    Group 1

    Wearing hockey clothes whist stood on a hockey pitch

    i.ephysical & Environment

    Group 2

    Wearing hockey clothes whist stood at home

    Physical only

    Group 3

    Wearing hockey clothes whist sat down at home.

    i.e. No PETTLEP elements

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    What is your thoughts on seeing is believing.

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    As of the 1988 Olympic games in Seoul, Korea, 86% of sport psychologyconsultants use imagery with their athletes. Gould, et al.. (1989)

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    Wright, Caroline J. And Smith, Dave K. (2007) The effect of a short-term PETTLEP

    imagery intervention on a cognative task, Journal of imagery research in sport

    and physcial activity: Vol. 2:Iss. 1, Article 1

    Knackstedt, paul, m.s, optimal timing of a pettlep mental imagery intervention on a

    Dart throwing task ( 2011)

    Driskell,Cooper, & Moran, 1994). Examining the emotion aspect ofPETTLEP Basedimagery with penalty taking in soccer. 01-SEP-10 Journal of sport behavoiur

    www.goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-13294940/Examining-the-emotion-

    aspect- of.html last accessed:- 10/11/2011