Section 508 and WCAG
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Transcript of Section 508 and WCAG
Section 508 and WCAGAccessibility Equality
Section 508Of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794 d)
Section 508 Compliance SummaryThe Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was amended in to include Section 508 in 1998, in order to eliminate barriers in information technology, open new opportunities for people with disabilities, and encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals.http://www.section508.gov/section508-laws All Federal Agencies are required to make any Electronic and Information Technology (E&IT) as readily accessible to people with disabilities as it is to people without disabilities
E&IT Electronic & Information Technology(as defined by the U.S. Access Board)Definition:Includes information technology and any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the creation, conversion, or duplication of data or information.http://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications-and-it/about-the-section-508-standards/guide-to-the-section-508-standards/scope
E&IT Electronic & Information Technology(as defined by the U.S. Access Board)Includes, but is not limited to:Telecommunications products (such as telephones)Information kiosks and transaction machinesWorld Wide Web sitesMultimediaOffice equipment such as copiers and fax machinesComputers (desktop and portable)Software applications and operating systemsSelf-contained, closed productsElectronic documents and archives
Why 508 MattersApproximately 20% of Americans are considered disabledApproximately 10% have severe disabilitiesAs of 1990, more than 13 million Americans use assistive technologyThe Center for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the National Health Interview Survey on Disability, and provides comprehensive literature and visual data about the nature and depth of people with disabilities in the U.S. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/nhis_disability.htm Search engines are more likely to find an accessible site since Search Engine Optimization and Accessibility have many similar requirements.It is beneficial to all users because accessible sites are typically easier to useIts the right thing to do (seriously, it really is)
Types of DisabilitiesThere are hundreds of sources that discuss major and specific types of disabilities. Not all of the sources agree, so here is a list of the 6 disability types covered by the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) questionnaire: (https://www.census.gov/people/disability/methodology/acs.html) Hearing difficulty: deaf or having serious difficulty hearingVision difficulty: blind or having serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glassesCognitive difficulty: Because of a physical, mental, or emotional problem, having difficulty remembering, concentrating, or making decisionsAmbulatory difficulty: Having serious difficulty walking or climbing stairsSelf-care difficulty: Having difficulty bathing or dressingIndependent living difficulty: Because of a physical, mental, or emotional problem, having difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or shopping
Barriers and Assistive TechnologiesAuditory Barriers: Multimedia without captioning, system information and errors using only sound cues with no visual functionalityAuditory Assistive Technology: Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD), Text captioning
Barriers and Assistive TechnologiesMobility Barriers: Use of computer hardware such as a mouse or keyboard, especially holding down more than one key at a timeMobility Assistive Technology: Keyboard controls, breath or head tracking control devices, voice recognition software, alternative or on screen keyboards
Barriers and Assistive TechnologiesCognitive Barriers: Timeouts on features like forms or system information screens, concentrated text areas with few images or breaks, unintuitive tables, colors or information orderCognitive Assistive Technology: Assistive hardware, like touch screens and picture keyboards. Best practices for information presentation and simplicity should be followed
Section 508 Web-based Requirements 1194.22 Web-based intranet and internet information and applications.(a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content).(b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.(c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.
Section 508 Web-based Requirements(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.(j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.(k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.
Section 508 Web-based Requirements(l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.(m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with 1194.21(a) through (l).(n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.(p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required
WCAGWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines
Alignment of WCAG Checkpoints to 508 Policies(https://www.ssbbartgroup.com/reference/index.php/Section_508_versus_WCAG) Section 508 StandardsWCAG 1WCAG 2(a) Text equivalent of non-text items18.104.22.168,1.4.5(b) Provide synchronized alternatives for media22.214.171.124(c) Information should not be conveyed only with color126.96.36.199(d) Documents must be readable without style sheets6.1NA(e) Redundant text link for server-side image maps1.2Multiple(f) Client side images maps should be used9.1Multiple(g) Identify table headers188.8.131.52(h) Associate table and header cells184.108.40.206(i) Properly title frames220.127.116.11(j) Avoid causing pages to flicker18.104.22.168(k) As a last resort provide a text-only page11.4NA(l) Ensure scripts are accessibleMultipleMultiple(m) Provide a link to an accessible plug-inMultipleMultiple(n) Ensure electronic forms are accessibleMultipleMultiple(o) Provide a method for skipping repetitive links22.214.171.124(p) Ensure user control over timed responses72.2.1
WCAG Web Content Accessibility Guidelines(http://www.w3.org/2004/10/wcag2-nav/wcag20.html) Published by World Wide Web Consortiums Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)Primarily geared toward users with disabilities (only major categories listed*)Visual: blindness, low vision, color-blindnessHearing: Deafness or hard-of-hearingMotor: Inability to use a mouse, slow response time, limited fine motor control.Cognitive: Learning disabilities, distractibility, inability to remember or focus on large amounts of information.Also concerned with ease-of-use with different technology:Cell phone, tablets, various operating systems and browsers, assistive technology software and hardware.
Principle 1 Perceivable(WCAG 2.0 Guidelines)Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.(1.1) Provide text alternatives for all non-text equivalents(1.2) Provide synchronized media equivalents for time-dependent presentations(1.3) Ensure that information, functionality and structure are separable from presentation(1.4) In visual presentations, make it easy to distinguish foreground words and images from the background(1.5) In auditory presentations, make it easy to distinguish foreground speech and sounds from background sounds
Principle 2: Operable(WCAG 2.0 Guidelines)User interface components and navigation must be operable.(2.1) Make all functionality operable via a keyboard or a keyboard interface(2.2) Allow users to control time limits on their reading or interaction unless specific real-time events or rules of completion make such control impossible(2.3) Allow users to avoid content that could cause photosensitive epileptic seizures(2.4) Facilitate the ability of users to orient themselves and move within the content(2.5) Help users avoid mistakes and make it easy to correct them
Principle 3: Understandable(WCAG 2.0 Guidelines)Info