SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic

SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic
SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic
SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic
SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic
SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic
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Transcript of SECTION 3 Alexander the Great - Ms. P. White's World ... 3 Alexander the Great ... The Hellenistic

  • What You Will Learn

    SECTION

    272

    SECTION3 Alexander the Great

    You are a soldier in the most powerful army in the world. In just

    eight years, you and your fellow soldiers have conquered an

    enormous empire. Now your general wants to push farther into

    unknown lands in search of greater glory. But youre thousands of

    miles from home, and you havent seen your family in years.

    Do you agree to go on fi ghting? Why or why not?

    BUILDING BACKGROUND The worlds most powerful army in the 300s BC was from Macedonia, a kingdom just north of Greece. The Greeks had long dismissed the Macedonians as unimportant. They thought of the Macedonians as barbarians because they lived in small villages and spoke a strange form of the Greek language. But the Greeks underestimated the Macedonians, barbarians or not.

    Macedonia Conquers GreeceIn 359 BC Philip II became king of Macedonia. Philip spent the fi rst year of his rule fi ghting off invaders who wanted to take over his kingdom. Once he defeated the invaders, he was ready to launch invasions of his own.

    Philips main target was Greece. The leaders of Athens, knowing they were the target of Philips powerful army, called for all Greeks to join together. Few people responded.

    1. Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC.

    2. Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt.

    3. The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexanders empire blended Greek and other cultures.

    Main Ideas

    Key Terms and PeoplePhilip II, p. 272phalanx, p. 273Alexander the Great, p. 274Hellenistic, p. 275

    Use the graphic organizer online to take notes on Alexander the Great and how he spread Greek culture.

    If YOU were there...

    Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread Greek culture into Egypt and Asia.

    The Big Idea

    6-8_SNLAESE485829_C09S3.indd 272 7/10/10 11:58:13 AM

  • THE GREEK WORLD 273

    As a result, the armies of Athens and its chief ally Thebes were easily defeated by the Macedonians. Having witnessed this defeat, the rest of the Greeks agreed to make Philip their leader.

    Philips Military StrengthPhilip defeated the Greeks because he was a brilliant military leader. He borrowed and improved many of the strategies Greek armies used in battle. For example, Philips soldiers, like the Greeks, fought as a pha-lanx (FAY-langks). A phalanx was a group of warriors who stood close together in a square. Each soldier held a spear pointed outward to fi ght off enemies. As soldiers in the front lines were killed, others stepped up from behind to fi ll their spots.

    Philip improved upon the Greeks idea. He gave his soldiers spears that were much longer than those of his opponents. This allowed his army to attack effectively in any battle. Philip also sent cavalry and archers into battle to support the phalanx.

    After conquering Greece, Philip turned his attention to Persia. He planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but he never made it. He was murdered in 336 BC while celebrating his daughters wedding. When Philip died, his throneand his planspassed to his son, Alexander.

    READING CHECK Summarizing How was Philip II able to conquer Greece?

    Alexander Builds an EmpireWhen Philip died, the people in the Greek city of Thebes rebelled. They thought that the Macedonians would not have a lead-er strong enough to keep the kingdom together. They were wrong.

    Controlling the GreeksAlthough he was only 20 years old, Philips son Alexander was as strong a leader as his father had been. He immediately went south to end the revolt in Thebes.

    The PhalanxWith men holding 16-foot-long spears, a phalanx marches into battle.

    Why were the soldiers spears so long?

    6-8_SNLAESE485829_C09S3.indd 273 7/10/10 11:58:20 AM

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    (Syr Darya)

    Euphrates River

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    Cyprus

    CreteASIA

    MINORIssus333 BC

    Granicus334 BC

    Gaugamela331 BC

    AthensThebes

    Sparta

    Alexandria

    Babylon

    Susa

    PersepolisAlexandriaCarmana

    Pattala

    Alexandria

    AlexandriaArachoton(Kandahar)

    Kabul

    AlexandriaEskhata

    AlexandriaBucephala

    AlexandriaNicaea

    AlexandriaOpiana

    Alexandria onthe Caucasus

    AlexandriaAreia

    Alexandropolis

    Pasargadae

    Ecbatana

    Alexandria

    Cyrene

    Memphis

    Gordium

    Sardis

    Pella

    N

    S

    WE

    HRW World Historywh06as_c10map013aa

    Alexander the Great's Empire, c. 323 BCAPPROVED(3) 10/28/04

    Re

    d S

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    B l a c k S e a

    M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a

    Aegean

    Sea

    AralSea

    A r a b i a n S e a

    Pe r s i a n G u l f

    Ca

    sp

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    Se

    a

    Arabian

    Peninsula

    CAUCASUSMOUNTAINS

    HIND

    U

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    PERSIANEMPIRE

    PARTHIA

    BACTRIA

    INDIAEGYPT

    MACEDON

    IA

    SYR

    IA

    Nile R

    iver

    Danube River

    Indu

    s

    R

    iver

    Oxus River

    (Amu Darya)

    Jaxartes River

    (Syr Darya)

    Euphrates River

    Tigris River

    Cyprus

    CreteASIA

    MINORIssus333 BC

    Granicus334 BC

    Gaugamela331 BC

    AthensThebes

    Sparta

    Alexandria

    Babylon

    Susa

    PersepolisAlexandriaCarmana

    Pattala

    Alexandria

    AlexandriaArachoton(Kandahar)

    Kabul

    AlexandriaEskhata

    AlexandriaBucephala

    AlexandriaNicaea

    AlexandriaOpiana

    Alexandria onthe Caucasus

    AlexandriaAreia

    Alexandropolis

    Pasargadae

    Ecbatana

    Alexandria

    Cyrene

    Memphis

    Gordium

    Sardis

    Pella

    N

    S

    WE

    HRW World Historywh06as_c10map013aa

    Alexander the Great's Empire, c. 323 BCAPPROVED(3) 10/28/04

    Alexanders empire

    Major battle site

    Route of Alexanderand his armies

    0 150 300 Miles

    0 150 300 Kilometers

    HRW World Historywh06as_c10map013aa

    Alexander the Great's Empire, c. 323 BCLegend

    FINAL 8/11/04

    274 CHAPTER 9

    Within a year, Alexander had destroyed Thebes and enslaved the Theban people. He used Thebes as an example to other Greeks of what would happen if they turned against him. Then, confi dent that the Greeks would not rebel again, he set out to build an empire.

    Alexanders efforts to build an empire made him one of the greatest conquerors in history. These efforts earned him the name Alexander the Great.

    Building a New EmpireLike his father, Alexander was a brilliant commander. In 334 BC he attacked the Per-sians, whose army was much larger than his own. But Alexanders troops were well trained and ready for battle. They defeated the Persians time after time.

    According to legend, Alexander vis-ited a town called Gordium in Asia Minor while he was fi ghting the Persians. There he heard an ancient tale about a knot tied by an ancient king. The tale said that who-ever untied the knot would rule all of Asia. According to the legend, Alexander pulled out his sword and cut right through the knot. Taking this as a good sign, he and his army set out again.

    If you look at the map, you can follow the route Alexander took on his conquests. After defeating the Persians near the town of Issus, Alexander went to Egypt, which was part of the Persian Empire. The Persian governor had heard of his skill in battle. He surrendered without a fi ght in 332 BC and crowned Alexander pharaoh.

    After a short stay in Egypt, Alexander set out again. Near the town of Gaugamela (gaw-guh-MEE-luh), he defeated the Per-sian army for the last time. After the battle, the Persian king fl ed. The king soon died, killed by one of his nobles. With the kings death, Alexander became the ruler of what had been the Persian Empire.

    Marching HomeStill intent on building his empire, Alexan-der led his army through Central Asia. In 327 BC Alexander crossed the Indus River and wanted to push deeper into India. But his exhausted soldiers refused to go any farther. Disappointed, Alexander began the long march home.

    Alexander left India in 325 BC, but he never made it back to Greece. In 323 BC, on his way back, Alexander visited the city of Babylon and got sick. He died a few days later at age 33. After he died, Alexanders body was taken to Egypt and buried in a golden coffi n.

    We still use the phrase cutting

    the Gordian knot to mean solving a

    difficult problem easily.

    THE IMPACT

    TODAY

    6-8_SNLAESE485829_C09S3.indd 274 7/10/10 11:59:10 AM

  • Re

    d S

    ea

    B l a c k S e a

    M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a

    Aegean

    Sea

    AralSea

    A r a b i a n S e a

    Pe r s i a n G u l f

    Ca

    sp

    i an

    Se

    a

    Arabian

    Peninsula

    CAUCASUSMOUNTAINS

    HIND

    U

    KUSH

    PERSIANEMPIRE

    PARTHIA

    BACTRIA

    INDIAEGYPT

    MACEDON

    IA

    SYR

    IA

    Nile R

    iver

    Danube River

    Indu

    s

    R

    iver

    Oxus River

    (Amu Darya)

    Jaxartes River

    (Syr Darya)