Section 2-Radical Revolution and Reaction Preview of Events Radical Revolution and Reaction
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Transcript of Section 2-Radical Revolution and Reaction Preview of Events Radical Revolution and Reaction
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- Section 2-Radical Revolution and Reaction
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- Preview of Events Radical Revolution and Reaction
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- A French physician, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, was instrumental in having a law passed requiring all sentences of death to be carried out humanely by means of a machine. Use of the guillotine, named for Guillotin, continued in France through the 1970s. In 1981, France outlawed capital punishment.
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- The Move to Radicalism Led by the minister of justice, Georges Danton, the sans-culottes sought revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will. Thousands of people were arrested and massacred. One of the more important radical leaders was Jean-Paul Marat, who published the radical journal Friend of the People. He argued that the poor had a right to take from the rich whatever they needed, even by violence.
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- The Move to Radicalism (cont.) The National Convention met in 1792, acting not only as a constitutional convention but also as a sovereign ruling body. Its first act was to end the monarchy and establish the French Republic. The members disagreed over the kings fate. Two factions, or dissenting groupsthe urban Mountain and the rural Girondinsof the Jacobin political club divided over the issue.
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- The Girondins wanted to keep the king alive. The Mountain won and the king was beheaded, using the guillotine because they thought it was humane. The split got Marat, a Mountain, killed; Charlotte Corday, a Girondin, stabbed him to death in his bathtub. The Move to Radicalism (cont.)
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- France had other domestic problems besides a split in the National Convention. The Paris Commune pressured the convention to enact more and more radical measures, and parts of France refused to accept the rule of the convention. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Move to Radicalism (cont.) (pages 555557)
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- A foreign crisis also loomed because the execution of the king outraged European monarchies. Spain, Portugal, Britain, and other monarchies formed a loose coalition to invade France. To respond, the National Convention formed the 12-member Committee of Public Safety, led first by Danton and then by Maximilien Robespierre. The Move to Radicalism (cont.)
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- Robespierre was a lawyer and activist, so known for his honesty that he was called The Incorruptible. He followed Rousseaus ideas in The Social Contract, and he believed that anyone who would not submit to the general will as he interpreted it should be executed. The Move to Radicalism (cont.)
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- (pages 557560) The Reign of Terror From 1793 to 1794, the Committee of Public Safety and the National Convention tried to defend France from foreign and domestic threats. At home they began what came to known as the Reign of Terror. Revolutionary courts prosecuted enemies of the revolution. Close to 40,000 people were killed during this time. Anyone who had opposed the sans-culottes could be a victim. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) Revolutionary armies were sent to subdue rebellious cities. Lyon was made an example as some 1,880 citizens were executed and much of the city was destroyed. In the city of Nantes, the revolutionary commander executed his victims by sinking them in barges in the Loire River. Clergy and nobles made up about 15 percent of the Terrors victims. The rest were bourgeoisie and peasants.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) The National Convention established a military school to train young men to be patriots. Its thousands of recruits were to have high moral standards and be enthusiastic patriots, but most just wanted to go home. The plan to train patriots failed. Many of these young men turned against the revolutionaries responsible for the Reign of Terror.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) The Committee took other steps to control France and bring order. It called the new order the Republic of Virtue, a democratic republic of good citizens. The titles citizen and citizeness replaced mister and madame. Agents were sent all over France to implement laws dealing with the wartime emergency. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) The Committee also tried to establish price controls on necessities, though the controls failed.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) The women who convinced Louis XVI to return to Paris stayed involved in the revolution. In 1793, two women founded the working-class Society for Revolutionary Republican Women and were ready to defend France. Most of the men continued to believe that women should not participate in politics or fight, however. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 557560)
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) To establish an order built on reason, the National Convention had a dechristianization policy. The word saint was removed from street names and churches were closed. The cathedral of Notre Dame was rededicated as a temple of reason.
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- The Reign of Terror (cont.) A new calendar was adopted. Years were numbered from September 22, 1792, the first day of the French Republic, and not from Christs birth. The calendar contained 12 months with each month having three weeks of 10 days, with the tenth day a day of rest. This practice eliminated Sundays. Robespierre realized, however, that France was too Catholic to be dechristianized. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 557560)
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- A Nation in Arms To save the republic from foreign nations, the Committee of Public Safety called a universal mobilization in 1793. By September 1794, France had an army of over one million. It pushed the countries invading France back across the Rhine and conquered the Austrian Netherlands.
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- A Nation in Arms (cont.) The French revolutionary army changed the nature of modern warfare and was an important step in creating modern nationalism. Previously, small armies fought wars between governments and ruling dynasties. The new French army was a peoples army fighting a peoples war on behalf of a peoples government. Warfare also became more destructive. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 560)
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- A Nation in Arms (cont.) France had defeated its foreign foes by the summer of 1794. Robespierre was obsessed with ridding France of its domestic enemies, however. Only then could the Republic of Virtue exist. Many deputies of the National Convention feared Robespierre, and they executed him. After Robespierres death, the Terror ended, and the more radical Jacobins lost power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 560)
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- The Directory The National Convention created a new constitution reflecting the desire for stability. The Constitution of 1795 established a legislative assembly of two chambers, the Council of 500 and the Council of Elders. Electors (individuals qualified to vote in an election) chose the 750 legislators. There were only 30,000 electors, due to a qualification requirement of owning a certain amount of property. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
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- The Directory (cont.) From a list presented by the Council of 500, the Council of Elders elected five directors to act as the executive committee, or Directory. The period of the Directory (1795 to 1799) was one of government corruption. People reacted against the Reign of Terrors time of deprivation, some making great fortunes from graft. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 560561)
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- The Directory (cont.) The Directory also faced political enemies from both royalists and radicals. It could not solve the countrys economic problems, and it was fighting the wars begun by the Committee of Public Safety. The Directory relied more and more on military might to stay in power. In 1799 a coup dtata sudden overthrow of the governmentled by the popular general Napoleon Bonaparte toppled the Directory. Napoleon took power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.