Scoliosis By: Doug Rust SBI3U ISU Mr. Watts 2007

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Transcript of Scoliosis By: Doug Rust SBI3U ISU Mr. Watts 2007

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Scoliosis By: Doug Rust SBI3U ISU Mr. Watts 2007 Slide 2 A bit about the Spine Two main functions of spine 1. spinal cord is critical carrier of messages containing functions for the body Two main functions of spine 1. spinal cord is critical carrier of messages containing functions for the body 2. spinal column holds the body erect 2. spinal column holds the body erect Consists of 33 separate bones called vertebrae which comes from the Latin word to turn Consists of 33 separate bones called vertebrae which comes from the Latin word to turn A normal spine has 4 separate curves, top is Cervical Vertebrae, chest curves are Thoracic and Lumbar, bottom is Sacrum and Coccyx A normal spine has 4 separate curves, top is Cervical Vertebrae, chest curves are Thoracic and Lumbar, bottom is Sacrum and Coccyx Slide 3 More about the Spine Spine is surrounded by a complex of ligaments and muscle making it possible for body to bend and straighten Spine is surrounded by a complex of ligaments and muscle making it possible for body to bend and straighten Within vertebral column are rubbery cylinders of cartilage call disks Within vertebral column are rubbery cylinders of cartilage call disks Cartilage disks absorb shocks which relieve body from pressure movements Cartilage disks absorb shocks which relieve body from pressure movements Slide 4 What is Scoliosis? Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal curvature of the spine, often being progressive which can result in severe deformity and other related medical problems Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal curvature of the spine, often being progressive which can result in severe deformity and other related medical problems Slide 5 History Physicians have been trying to treat this deformity for centuries Physicians have been trying to treat this deformity for centuries Idiopathic scoliosis means the origin of the disorder is unknown Idiopathic scoliosis means the origin of the disorder is unknown 85% of the scoliosis is classified as Idiopathic 85% of the scoliosis is classified as Idiopathic Because the disorder is usually genetic, it is difficult to trace the origin of the disorder Because the disorder is usually genetic, it is difficult to trace the origin of the disorder Slide 6 Causes of Scoliosis Many other diseases or problems can lead to scoliosis Many other diseases or problems can lead to scoliosis Considered to be a genetic problem in most cases Considered to be a genetic problem in most cases Imbalance of muscle around vertebrae Imbalance of muscle around vertebrae High arches in the feet which cause an imbalance High arches in the feet which cause an imbalance Defects in co-ordination during growth may cause asymmetrical growth Defects in co-ordination during growth may cause asymmetrical growth Lack of melatonin in blood that may affect muscle tone and development during sleep Lack of melatonin in blood that may affect muscle tone and development during sleep 2 physical causes are : 1. unequal leg length 2 physical causes are : 1. unequal leg length 2. muscle spasms 2. muscle spasms Slide 7 Other Factors Leading to Scoliosis Tumors, growths or other small abnormalities on spinal column Tumors, growths or other small abnormalities on spinal column Muscle paralysis and deterioration from muscular diseases (eg. Cerebral palsy or polio) Muscle paralysis and deterioration from muscular diseases (eg. Cerebral palsy or polio) Injury to spinal cord Injury to spinal cord Stress factors and hormonal abnormalities that affect bone growth in young athletes Stress factors and hormonal abnormalities that affect bone growth in young athletes Slide 8 Birth Defects Causing Scoliosis Spina Bifida (an open spinal cord) Spina Bifida (an open spinal cord) Spina Bifida Cystica (a hernia of the central nervous system) Spina Bifida Cystica (a hernia of the central nervous system) Turners Syndrome Turners Syndrome Other diseases such as : Marfans syndrome, freiedreich ataxia, albers- schonberg disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cushings syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta Other diseases such as : Marfans syndrome, freiedreich ataxia, albers- schonberg disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cushings syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta Slide 9 Effects Effects the back bones, musculoskeletal system and spine Effects the back bones, musculoskeletal system and spine May be chronic and progressive May be chronic and progressive Mild scoliosis will cause few problems and require no treatment Mild scoliosis will cause few problems and require no treatment Rotation of vertebrae will caused misalignment of the ribs Rotation of vertebrae will caused misalignment of the ribs Lung problems can develop of many years Lung problems can develop of many years Scoliosis usually painless Scoliosis usually painless Slide 10 Symptoms Tilted head that does not line up over hips Tilted head that does not line up over hips Shoulder blade sticks out Shoulder blade sticks out One hip/shoulder is higher than the other One hip/shoulder is higher than the other Un-even neck line Un-even neck line Person leans more to one side Person leans more to one side In girls, breasts appear to be unequal size In girls, breasts appear to be unequal size When child bends, one side of back is higher than the other When child bends, one side of back is higher than the other *In some cases, there are NO visible symptoms *In some cases, there are NO visible symptoms Slide 11 Diagnosis Visual examination is usually enough to recognize condition Visual examination is usually enough to recognize condition X-Rays of spine will determine extent of curve X-Rays of spine will determine extent of curve Some schools have screening programs to detect disorder Some schools have screening programs to detect disorder Slide 12 This x-ray shows a slight curve which is called dextroscoli- osis. It is a curve on the right side in the Thoracic region of the spine. Slide 13 This x-ray shows the uneven shoulders that result in some cases of scoliosis Slide 14 Treatment For some cases of scoliosis where the curvature is severe it will require close observation For some cases of scoliosis where the curvature is severe it will require close observation Exercises have no affect on scoliosis Exercises have no affect on scoliosis Small curves do not require special treatment Small curves do not require special treatment Slide 15 Treatment with a Brace If the curve is becoming more clear and larger, the curve will be treated with a brace If the curve is becoming more clear and larger, the curve will be treated with a brace Slide 16 Treatment by Surgery If the curve is too severe, they will treat it with surgery by a specialist If the curve is too severe, they will treat it with surgery by a specialist During the surgery, a rod will be inserted along the spine after aligning the spine as much as possible During the surgery, a rod will be inserted along the spine after aligning the spine as much as possible The rod with prevent any further curvature The rod with prevent any further curvature Surgery Video Slide 17 Future Outlook Researches are looking for a main cause Researches are looking for a main cause Studies are taking place in genetics, growth and structural biochemical alterations in discs and muscles and central nervous system changes Studies are taking place in genetics, growth and structural biochemical alterations in discs and muscles and central nervous system changes Changes in discs seem to be the result and not cause of scoliosis Changes in discs seem to be the result and not cause of scoliosis Hope that studying central nervous system will lead to cause Hope that studying central nervous system will lead to cause Recent research has said the first gene associated with scoliosis has been found Recent research has said the first gene associated with scoliosis has been found Slide 18 Research Researchers are currently researching how variety of braces, surgical procedures and instruments can be used to straighten the spine or prevent further curvature Researchers are currently researching how variety of braces, surgical procedures and instruments can be used to straighten the spine or prevent further curvature They are currently studying the long-term effects of scoliosis fusion and untreated scoliosis They are currently studying the long-term effects of scoliosis fusion and untreated scoliosis Slide 19 Facts About Scoliosis Affects about 2% of the population Affects about 2% of the population Usually runs in families, 20% more chance of having scoliosis if a family member has it Usually runs in families, 20% more chance of having scoliosis if a family member has it Majority of scoliosis starts in children Majority of scoliosis starts in children It develops before puberty, mostly in girls It develops before puberty, mostly in girls In adults, it is usually caused by having it as a child and not treating it In adults, it is usually caused by having it as a child and not treating it In the elderly, scoliosis is usually caused by Osteoporosis (bone softening) In the elderly, scoliosis is usually caused by Osteoporosis (bone softening) Slide 20 References Finley, Thomas K. (2002). Scoliosis. In Magills Medical Guide (Vol.3, pp. 2018 2022). New Jersey : Solem Press Inc. Finley, Thomas K. (2002). Scoliosis. In Magills Medical Guide (Vol.3, pp. 2018 2022). New Jersey : Solem Press Inc. (1996) Scoliosis. Mayo Clinic Family Health Book. New York : William Morrow and Company, Inc. (Vol. 2, pp 906 907). (1996) Scoliosis. Mayo Clinic Family Health Book. New York : William Morrow and Company, Inc. (Vol. 2, pp 906 907). University of Maryland Medical Centre. (2002) What are the symptoms of scoliosis? Retrieved April 9, 2007 on the World Wide Web : http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_symptoms_of_scoliosis_000068_ 5.html University of Maryland Medical Centre. (2002) What are the symptoms of scoliosis? Retrieved April 9, 2007