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  • 1. Chapter 14Jewish Americans:Quest to Maintain Identity

2. Jewish Americans The United States has the second-largestJewish population in the world Americas 5 million+ Jews account for39% of worlds population Play a prominent role in worldwide Jewishcommunity 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3. Jewish Americans American Jews resemble AsianAmericans in that both are largely freefrom poverty Anti-Semitism Anti-Jewish prejudice and discrimination Concentrated in Urban areas Especially New York City, Los Angeles, andMiami 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4. Jewish People: Race, Religion orEthnic Group? Jews are a subordinate group Experience unequal treatment Share a cultural history that distinguishesthem from the dominant group Ascribed status or involuntary status Group solidarity In-group marriage 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5. Jewish People: Race, Religion orEthnic Group? The trend in the United States amongJews Judaization Issue of what makes a Jew figures inpolicy matters 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6. Jewish People: Race, Religion orEthnic Group? The Israel Law of Return Defines who is a Jew and extends Israelicitizenship to all Jews Jewish identity is ethnic Share cultural traits not physical features oruniform religious beliefs 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7. Immigration of Jews to the UnitedStates First Jewish migration occurred around1654 from Spain and Portugal (Refugees) Largest Jewish migration occurredaround the turn of nineteenth century Immigration Act of 1920 reduced Jewishimmigration 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8. Immigration of Jews to the UnitedStates Immigrant Jews in 1930s were refugeesfrom Nazi Germany Recent immigration has been from Israel,Soviet Union, and Iran 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9. Anti-Semitism Past and Present History of Jews is of the struggle toovercome centuries of hatred Religious observances commemoratepast sacrifices or conflicts Origins of anti-Semitism Blamed for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 10. Anti-Semitism Past and Present Stereotype of Jews obsession with moneyis false Fringe-of-Values Theory In-Group Virtues becoming Out-GroupVices Discrimination as a source of anti-Semitism 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 11. The Holocaust Holocaust German policy and the restriction of therights of Jews Between 1933 - 1945 two-thirds ofEurope's Jewish population were killed 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 12. The Holocaust Holocaust Revisionists Anti-Semitism not just historical socialphenomenon in Europe Jewish worshippers attacked with rocks andinsults 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 13. United States Anti-Semitism: Past US cannot be described as a nation with ahistory of anti-Semitism Colonial America and anti-Semitism Peter Stuyvesants attempt to expel Jewsfrom what is New York City today The 1920s and 1930s period of mostvirulent and overt anti- Semitism 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 14. United States Anti-Semitism: Past Henry Ford responsible for publication ofthe Protocols Faced with millions in civil suits, postedhalfhearted apology in 1927 Protocols sold by Wal-Mart until 2004 2006 - Spanish version sold in Mexico City 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 15. Differences Between Anti-Semitismin the United States and Europe First - United States government neverpromoted anti-Semitic policies US never embarked on program of expulsionor extermination Second - anti-Semitism was notinstitutionalized in the United States 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 16. Contemporary Anti-Semitism Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith(1913) Monitors anti-Semitic incidents Rise in numbers in 1990s and 2000s Carried out by neo-Nazis or skinheads Internet growing as a vehicle for anti-Semitism 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17. Contemporary Anti-Semitism American Jews and Israel Israels status proven to strong source ofidentity for Jewish Americans Wars of 1967, 1973, and 1991 remindedworld of Israels vulnerability Not all American Jews agree with Israelsactions 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 18. Contemporary Anti-Semitism Zionism Diaspora Exile of Jews from Palestine several centuriesbefore Christianity Many Jews see destiny of their people only as theestablishment of a Jewish state in the Holy Land Zionism resolution repealed by the UN 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19. Contemporary Anti-Semitism American Jews and African Americans Anti-Semitism of African Americans is ofspecial concern to Jewish Americans Given Black history of oppression Jewish neighborhoods and employers quickerthan Gentiles to accept African Americans 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 20. Contemporary Anti-Semitism African American sentiment rarely anti-Jewish as such But rather opposed to White institutions James Baldwin (1967) Blacks are anti-Semitic because theyre anti-White 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 21. Position of Jewish Americans Employment and Income Declining discrimination in the business world Jewish MBAs and job opportunities Rising rapidly up the corporate hierarchy Higher salaries Declining poverty and the invisible poor Anne Wolf (1972) The Invisible Poor 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 22. Position of Jewish Americans Education Judaic religion and the emphasis on formalschooling Emphasis on education Higher educational attainment 1947, Jews founded graduate schools of: Medicine, education, social work, and mathematics 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 23. Position of Jewish Americans Organizational Activity Groups serve many purposes Religious, charitable, political, or educational United Jewish Appeal (UJA) (1939) Fund raising organization for humanitarian causes 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 24. Position of Jewish Americans American Jewish Community (1906) andCongress (1918) Improve Jewish-Gentile relations Bnai Brith (Sons of the Covenant) (1843) Promotes cultural and social change (Anti-Defamation League) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 25. Position of Jewish Americans Political Activity Prominent role as voters and elected officials Not typical as more likely than generalpopulation to label themselves as liberal Senator Joseph Lieberman (CT) Some Jews backed the extreme responses toArab-Israeli conflict 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 26. Position of Jewish Americans Jewish voters have always backed theDemocrat Over the Republican presidential candidatefor the last ten elections Barack Obama received 78% of the vote Compared to 21% for the Republicancandidate John McCain 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 27. Position of Jewish Americans Religious Life Jewish identity and participation in Jewishreligion are not the same Many Americans consider themselves Jewish And are considered Jewish by others though neverparticipated in religious life Levels of affiliation 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 28. Position of Jewish Americans The Orthodox Tradition Three sects beginning in mid-19th century Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism Reasons for development of differences Some Jews wanted to be less distinguishable fromother Americans Orthodox life is demanding 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 29. Position of Jewish Americans The Reform Tradition Deeply committed to faith but altered many ofthe rituals Reform are least likely to participate inpredominantly Jewish organizations Jewish denominations associated with class,nationality, and other social differences 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 30. Jewish Identity Improvement of Jewish-Gentile relationscreates new problem for Jewish identity It has become possible for Jews to shed theirJewishness or Yiddishkait Jews cannot totally lose identity Denied total assimilation in the US Social clubs may still refuse membership 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 31. Jewish Identity World events reminder of heritage Nazi Germany Founding of Israel (1948) 1967 Six-day War Soviet interference 1972 Munich Olympics Yom Kippur War (1973) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 32. Jewish Identity 1973 Oil Embargo UNs 1974 anti-Zionism vote Scud missile attacks during 1991 Gulf War Changes in Halakha Jewish law covering obligations and duties regarding women 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 33. Role of the Family Shadchan Marriage broker or matchmaker Fulfilled important function in Jewish community byensuring marriage of all eligible people Less acceptable to young Jews because ofromantic love Traditionally remained in extendedfamilies 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 34. Role of the Family American Jewish Committee 10 problems endangering Jewish family 1. More Jews marry later than other groups 2. Most organizations of single Jews no longeroperate solely for matching Now support single lifestyle 3. Divorce rate is rising 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 35. Role of the Family 4. Birthrate is falling, childlessness sociallyacceptable 5. Financial success more important than childraising 6. Intensity of family interaction decreased 7. Less socializing across generation lines 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 36. Role of the Family 8. Sense of responsibility of family members toeach other has declined 9. Role of Jewishness no longer central in Jewslives 10. Intermarriage has lessened involvement ofJewish partner in Jewish life & family life aspects 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 37. Rol