SCBA Air Management

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Air Management as agreed upon by Bend Fire & Rescue and Central Oregon Fire Operations Group for safety and survival training.

Transcript of SCBA Air Management


    ROAM, the Point of No Return, and Firefighter Situational AwarenessBend Fire & RescueFirefighter SCBA Safety & Survival Training

  • Air Management Training Objectives / GoalsReduce our chances of having a Out of Air emergencyReduce or eliminate false alarms on the fire ground or emergency incidentIncrease Firefighters situational awarenessIncrease crew and team accountability We are our brothers keeper

  • Fire service SCBA design evolutionHow we got here

    First SCBA 1945 Scott Air Pak1971 NFPA requires SCBALow air alarm or EOST (End of Service Time) set at 25% - continues todayLow air alarm somehow becomes a time to exit alarmTraining complacency regarding SCBA use and exit timesIncrease in Out of air FF emergencies

  • Firefighter Out of Air emergenciesApprox. 5-20 deaths per yearMost are preventableSCBA emergency incidents (Close calls) not trackedChanges in SCBA designRedundant alarmsBottle sizeHUDTracking systems and communications2006 NFPA 1404 - Air Management Training

  • 2005 USFA ReportFF Fatalities2005 8 2004 52003 62002 152001 18 2000 131999 161998 151997 151996 51995 - 20

  • Benchmark events12/03/99 Worcester Cold Storage Fire, Worcester, Mass.Event began with a mayday for two FF running low on air. 6 FF fatalities

    03/14/01 - Southwest Supermarket FirePhoenix, AZHose line separation and disorientation leadingto FF mayday. 1 fatality and 1 critical injury

  • Out of Air EmergenciesSCBA Mechanical failureEntrapmentStructure collapseEntanglementFallsDisorientationHose line separationCrew separationSudden hazardous eventFlashoverBack draftRapid fire progressImproper SCBA Training and use

  • Improper SCBA Training and UseLack of understanding actual work timesCylinder time vs. size / amountLack of understanding what effects work timesFirefighter physical conditionWork being performedEntry and exit travel timesImproper use of the Emergency Reserve Air Supply

  • NFPA 1404Standard for Fire Service Respiratory Protection2006 edition includes Air Management training for fire service personnel

  • Running Out of Air

    No air in the toxic smoke environment of today leads to rapid asphyxiationNo air during a thermal insult event will result in immediate and fatal burns to the throat and lungsNo air during a structural collapse means a lack of time for rescue and asphyxiation.

  • Running Out of AirNo air when lost of separated leads to panic leading to asphyxiationNo air requires the firefighter to breathe the products of combustion toxic smoke that is proven to be both poisonous and carcinogenicNo air means that even if the firefighter survives the initial assault on their respiratory system the toll on their wellness could be immeasurable

  • The Breath From HellCarbon monoxide (CO)Nitrogen dioxidePolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonsFormaldehydeAcid gasesPhosgeneBenzeneDioxins

    PVC & Hydrogen Cyanide Cyanide concentrations were directly related to the probability of death. Cyanide poisoning may have predominated over CO poisoning as a cause of death in some fire victims. Cyanide and CO may have elevate each others toxic effects. Elevated cyanide concentrations were pervasive among smoke-inhalation victims. Acetyls-aerosol containers, combs, lighters, and pens. Acrylics-glues, food packages, and skylights. Nylon-various household containers, brushes, sewing thread, and fishing line. Polyesters-hair dryers, computers, and kitchen appliances. Polypropylene-bottles, diapers, and furniture. Polyurethanes-shoes, cushions. Polyvinyl chloride-carpet, clothes, purses, records, and shower curtains. Thermo sets-TVs, coatings, toilets, buttons, flooring, and insulation.

  • The Point of No ReturnYou are past the point of no return if are unable to exit the IDLH environment without using your emergency reserve air and your low air alarm sounding.Or in other words..

    The point at which you stop being part of the solution and start becoming part of the problem.

  • Factors Affecting The Point of No Return

    Entry Point and Exit point Firefighter Physical Condition and SizeType of work being performedBuilding layout and sizeBuilding contentsUnforeseen or unexpected hazards

  • ROAM: The Rule of Air Management

    KNOW how much air you have in your SCBA and manage the amount of air you have, so that you leave the hazardous environment before your SCBA low-air warning alarm activates.

  • NFPA 1404 - 2006 ed.Three simple things:

    Exit BEFORE you use your reserve air.Alarm indicates use of reserve.Alarm activation is an immediate action item

  • Factors that affect air supply duration (Work times)

    Familiarity with equipment.Physical and emotional preparedness. Knowing what your air supply is upon entry, and at reasonable intervals as you proceed into the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) environment. Ongoing evaluation of your team based on air supplyThe physical layout of the structure and any variables presented as you proceed. Work assignmentUnderstanding how far you have advanced into the structure or hazardous environment and the time it has taken you to get there.

    Good situational awareness

  • Rules of Air ManagementThe heart and soul of air management is knowing how much air you have in your cylinder.

    Know it when you go in, at intervals along the way, and make sure you have enough air in your bottle to exit the hazardous atmosphere before your low-air warning bell begins to ring.

  • Rules of Air ManagementYou should be out of the hazardous environment before your low-air warning bell begins to ring. Using the low-air warning bell as a signal to exit the hazardous environment is a recipe for disaster.

    We want the low-air warning bell to be an emergency alarm, not the false alarm it is today on the U.S. fireground.

    Exiting the hazardous atmosphere before the low-air warning bell begins to ring is central to the Rule of Air Management.

  • Air Management GuidelinesSOG / PPIPurposeThe purpose is to establish Air Management guidelines. Air Management is critical to the health and safety of our members. Firefighters should exit the fire building or hazardous atmosphere before their low air warning bell begins ringing. This gives them reserve air should something go wrong. A low-air warning bell ringing at an emergency scene should be an audible warning that a firefighter may be in trouble.

  • Air Management GuidelinesDefinitions

    Air Management: An ongoing assessment of air consumption by individual firefighters and teams who are breathing air from their Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Firefighters in a hazardous atmosphere must continually check their pressure gauges to know how much air they have left in their bottle.The Rule of Air Management: Know how much air you have, and manage the amount of air you have left in your bottle so that you leave the hazardous atmosphere before your SCBA low-air warning bell begins to ring.

    Hazardous Atmosphere: Any atmosphere which is oxygen deficient or which contains a toxic and/or disease-producing contaminant. These atmospheres can by immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH), or not.

    IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health

  • Air Management GuidelinesHow Air Management Works

    Air management is each firefighters responsibility and is closely related to situational awareness. Firefighters must make sure that they have a full (min. 4050 psi) cylinder before they enter the hazardous atmosphere. Once inside the hazardous atmosphere, firefighters must check their pressure gauges at intervals (interior benchmarks), and inform their officer/team leader what their air pressure reading is.

    The Officer/team leader should take the lead in air management. Officers and team leaders must make the decision when to exit so that the team is out of the hazardous atmosphere before any or their teams low-air warning bells begin to ring. There are many factors that affect the duration of the teams air supply, such as: fire conditions, work rates, aerobic fitness of the team members, and stress.

  • Air Management GuidelinesIt is the expectation that all Bend Fire & Rescue (BF&R) personnel utilizing Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) will:

    Check their air levels before they enter the hazardous atmosphere. Personnel must have a minimum of 4050 PSI in their cylinder in order to make entry into a hazardous atmosphere. This check can be done during the pre-entry r.e.a.d.y. check. Follow the Rule of Air Management when operating in any hazardous atmosphere.

    All firefighters are expected to be out of the hazardous atmosphere before their low-air warning bells begin to ring.

  • Air Management GuidelinesWhen a member of any team operating in the hazardous area reaches 50% capacity 225O PSI (Heads-Up Display lights activate with two flashing amber lights), the officer/team leader must be notified.

    Officers and team leaders must notify the Incident Commander (IC) or their ICS functionary (Command, Division, etc.) when their first team member reaches 50% capacity (2250 PSI). This allows the ICS functionary to be informed of the teams air situation and to pre-plan for replacing that team in the hazardous environment.

  • Air Management Guidelines

    If a team member works into their reserve air and their low-air warning bell begins to ring in the hazard area, the officer/team leader shall immediately report over the radio to the proper ICS functionary (Command, Division, etc) their unit ID, their location, that a team members low-air warning bell is ringing, an