Sandra Groeneveld

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Transcript of Sandra Groeneveld

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Diversity and diversity policies in educationEvidence from the Netherlands

International Conference on EducationDiverse Talents for the Future of EuropeBrussels 5-6 March 2012

Dr Sandra GroeneveldDepartment of Public AdministrationErasmus University RotterdamThe Netherlandss.m.groeneveld@fsw.eur.nl

What is the impact of increasing ethnic-cultural diversity on performance in education?

Outline:Diversity in higher education and performance of students: what can we learn from diversity management literature? results from an experiment in Dutch higher educationDiversity policies in education: are they effective? results from an employee survey in the Dutch public sector

Diversity and diversity policies in educationEvidence from the Netherlands

(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experimentVan Knippenberg et al. (2004): Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM)

Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance yielded inconsistent results.Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM) incorporates information/decision making and categorization processes in one model.

(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experimentVan Knippenberg et al. (2004): Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM)

Information/decision making perspective: diversity within a group is positively related to the elaboration of task relevant information and perspectives. Elaboration is related to work group performance.

Social categorization perspective: social categorization, the differentiation between in-group others and out-group others, leads to intergroup biases, dependent on threats to subgroup identity. Intergroup biases moderate the relationship between diversity and elaboration.

(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experimentCategorization-Elaboration Model (CEM) (adjusted)DiversityElaborationPerformance: creativity, innovation, decision qualityIntergroup biases/affective reactionsIdentity threatTask motivationTask ability

(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experimentField experimentDesign:Nine working groups of app. 20 students with different shares of ethnic minority students (9 77 percent)Diversity: share of ethnic minority studentsAssignment (t0) Discussion Assignment (t1)SurveyStructural equation modeling to assess the fit of the CEM modelWe used CEM for analyzing work group processes in higher education (Van Kleef, 2011; Van Kleef & Groeneveld, forthcoming).

(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experimentResults:Diversity % ethnic minoritiesElaborationParticipatory safety and support etc.Performance:Adjustments in assignmentAffective reactionsGroup cohesion, identification, commitmentIdentity threatThreat of subgroup identityTask motivationmotivation--++-+

Conclusion:Diversity hampers elaboration, unless affective reactions are positive. However, diversity is also negatively related to affective reactions due to identity threat.Education policies should focus on fostering elaboration and on preventing intergroup biases. Education policies that integrate diversity perspectives are needed.Diversity and diversity management policies in education could affect work climate for both employees and students part 2(1) Diversity in higher education and performance of students: an experiment

Diversity management policies are targeted at:

Increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in the workforce;Improving the HRM outcomes and performance of a diverse workforce.

(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Diversity in education (source: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, 2011)(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Diversity in education (source: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, 2011)(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?Coalition agreement (2010): The government will abolish the diversity/affirmative action policy on the basis of gender and ethnic origin. Selection must be based on quality. (Colorblind policy)

Motivations for pursuing diversity management policies:

Social justice and legitimacy of a representative public sectorBusiness case:Identifying, recruiting and retaining diverse talents in the labor market;Gaining access to and legitimacy with citizens ( pupils, students);Diversity is a resource for learning and innovation, if managed well (cf elaboration processes)(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Diversity policies in the Dutch public sector categorized according to the three reasons for pursuing diversity policies:Diverse talentsPreferential treatmentTarget figuresAccess and legitimacyAccess to target groups by matchingDiverse selection teamsNetworkingLearning and innovationCultural change programsTraining on cultural differences(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Survey among Dutch public sector employees, 2011 (N = 11,557)See: Celik, Ashikali & Groeneveld (2011); Ashikali (2011); Groeneveld & De Ruijter (2011).(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Incidence of policy instruments in the Dutch public sector (percentage of employees reporting a kind of policy)(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

Chart1

243573

163377

212665

172235

102566

303662

192161

Education

Government

Police and Defence

Blad1

EducationGovernmentPolice and Defence

Preferential treatment243573

Target figures163377

Access to target groups by matching212665

Diverse recruitment and selection teams172235

Networking102566

Cultural change programs303662

Training on cultural differences192161

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Conclusion from the previous:Education employs a relatively low share of ethnic minority employees.Organizations in education conduct relatively few diversity policies.

A business case for diversity policies in education? Do they affect commitment, and retention of ethnic minority employees in education positively [= increasing representation]? Do they affect work motivation and work climate in education positively [= improving outcomes]? (2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?

(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?Cultural change programsAffective commitment (+)Turnover intention (-)Work motivation (+)Work climate (+)Stronger effect on work motivation of ethnic minority employees

(2) Diversity and diversity policies in education: are they effective?Access to target groups by matchingWork climate (+)Stronger effect on work climate for ethnic minority employees

Diversity and diversity policies in education: concluding remarksThe experiment shows the need to prevent categorization processes in order to improve the work climate for students and their performance.The survey results show that policies targeted at access to target groups by matching and cultural change programs contribute to both retention and work motivation of (ethnic minority) employees and to a positive work climate.Education policy makers could adopt diversity management programs in order to foster a work climate that improves elaboration and performance in education.

*I am Sandra Groeneveld and I am working as an associate professor in the department of public administration of the Erasmus University in the Netherlands. My research and teaching revolve around diversity and diversity management in the public sector. It is from this viewpoint, the viewpoint of diversity management, that I will approach the conference theme, diverse talents for the future of Europe.In the next twenty minutes I will focus on diversity and diversity management policies in (higher) education. I will discuss some results from empirical research in the Netherlands which I conducted together with my master students and PhD. students. The central question to be answered is what the impact is of increasing ethnic-cultural diversity on performance in education. I will answer this question in two steps.

Firstly, I will analyse the effects of ethnic cultural diversity of student working groups on students performance in higher education. I will present the results from an experiment in Dutch higher education. The results show that potential positive outcomes from diversity are hampered by inter group biases within students working groups. The question arises what could be done to improve the diversity climate in Dutch higher education.Therefore, secondly, I will distinguish between several types of diversity management policies targeted at improving diversity and performance in education organizations. Based on the results of an employee survey in the Dutch public sector, among which the educational sector, I will assess the effectiveness of these diversity policies in organizations in education.

Based on this, I will conclude with some policy recommendations.Diversity management scholars have done great efforts to analyse the effects of diversity of work groups in organizations on performance. Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance however, yielded inconsistent results. The state of research suggests that work group diversity may have positive as well as negative effects