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  • S.1 Non-Renewable Energy

    Non-renewable energy refers to the energy resources that occur naturally but depleted with time as they are mined and utilized to meet the ever increase in global energy demands

    Types of non-renewable energy sources are derived from gas, liquid or solid fossil fuel such as diesel, gasoline, heating oil, distillate, coal, natural gas

    Nuclear energy is also classified as non- renewable energy

    Fossil Fuel Source

  • P1.1 Acknowledgements

    1. Azhar A. A., Normah M.G., Sanjayan V. , Faizal B.H.

    2. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ( www.fkm.utm.my/~asialink2006/ )

  • P1.2 Literature

    Author: Sybil P. Parker, 1981 Title: “Encyclopedia of Energy” Publisher: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

    Author: Cutler J. Cleverland, Christopher G. Morri s, 2004 Title: “Encyclopedia of Energy” Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd.

    Author: Attilio Bisio & Sharon Boots, 1996 Title: “Encyclopedia of Energy and the Environment” Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Publishing Inc.

    Author: Myer P. Kutz, 2005 Title:“Energy and Power” Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

    Author: Schipper Lee, 2006 Title: “Energy Efficiency and Human Activity: Past Trends and Future Prospect” Publisher: Cambridge University Press

    Author : Trinnaman, 2004 Title: “2004 Survey of Energy Resources” Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd.

    Author: Frank Kreith, 2007 Title: “Energy Conversion” Publisher: CRC Pr I. Llc

    Some of the materials for this chapter are extracte d from the following websites: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm

  • http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature


    http://www.americanenergyindependence.com/synthetic fuel.html







    http://chemistry.about.com/library/glossary/bldef53 3p.htm

    http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosp here/smog.html

    http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9026722/cracki ng

    http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9063032/reform ing

    http://www.bydesign.com/fossilfuels/links/html/oil/ oil_find.html


    http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-123030/coalifica tion

    http://waterquality.montana.edu/docs/photo/coalific ation.shtml

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non -renewable/coal.html

    http://resourcescommittee.house.gov/subcommittees/e mr/usgsweb/photogallery

    http://www.worldcoal.org/pages/content/index.asp?Pa geID=104

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/info_gla nce/natural_gas.html


    http://r0.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/gas/market.ht m

    http://flatplanet.wikispaces.com/Group+11+Fossil+Fu els+and+Sustainable+Energy

  • P1.3 Prerequisites

    Some prior knowledge of chemistry and thermodynamic s (undergraduate level) are required to assist in the understanding of the content of this unit.

    P1.4 LU and TU

    Learning Units: 9 hours

    Teaching Units: 3 hours

    Explanation: Learning Units (LU) correspond to estimated number of hours for self-learning. Teaching Units (TU) correspond to estimated number of hours for te acher to present the material.

  • S.2 Educational Objectives

    On completion of this chapter, you will be able to :

    1. Understand the various types of fuels classified as non-renewable energies

    2. The source of the fuels

    3. The energy potential of the fuels and their cons tituents

    4. Method of synthesis

    5. Utilization of the types of non-renewable energy

  • S.3 Fossil Fuel

    A fossil fuel is formed in the ground by chemical and physical changes in plant (mainly) and animal residues under high temperature and pres sure over geological time periods. The major fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and nat ural gas. Petroleum products, such as fuel oils, are often included among the fossil fuel . Peat is thought to be an intermediate stage of most coals.

    A fossil fuel can either be a solid, liquid, or ga seous fuel material

    It consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen; the prop ortion of carbon is largest in coal and smallest in natural gas

    Carbon and hydrogen (and their compounds) when bur nt in air will result in the formation of various exhaust gas products

    Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation

    Example of an Inland Oil Well

  • P3.1 Fractional Distillation

    Crude oil is separated in fractions by a process called

    fractional distillation


    See the explanation

  • P3.1.1 Explanation of Fractional Distillation

    Figure shows a distillation process i.e. the most c ommon form of separation method used in petroleum refineries , petrochemical and chemical plants and natural gas processing plants. In many situations, the distillation is ope rated at a continuous steady state. Feedstock is always being added to the distillation column and products are always being removed. Unless the process is disturbed due to cha nges in feed, heat, ambient temperature, or condensing, the amount of feed bein g added and the amount of product being removed are normally equal. This is known as continuous, steady-state fractional distillation.

    The distillation towers have liquid outlets at inte rvals up the column which allow for the withdrawal of different fractions or products having different boiling points or boiling ranges. The "lightest" products (products with the lowest boiling point) exit from the top of the columns and the "heaviest" products (those with the highest boiling point) exit from the bottom of the column.

    For example, fractional distillation is used in oil refineries to separate crude oil into useful substances (or fractions) having different hydrocar bons of different boiling points. The crude oil fractions with higher boiling points:

  • S.4 Hydrocarbon

    The classifications for hydrocarbons defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry are as follows:

    1. Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are the simples t of the hydrocarbon species and are composed entirely of single bonds and are satur ated with hydrogen; they are the basis of petroleum fuels and are either found as li near or branched species of unlimited number. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n + 2 (assuming non-cyclic structures).

    2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between ca rbon atoms. Those with one double bond are called alkenes , with the formula C nH2n (assuming non-cyclic structures). Those containing triple bonds are called alkynes .

    3. Cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon rin gs to which hydrogen atoms are attached. The general formula fo r a saturated hydrocarbon containing one ring is CnH2n

    4. Aromatic hydrocarbons have at least one aromatic ring

    Hydrocarbons can be gases (e.g. methane and propane ), liquids (e.g. hexane and benzene ), waxes or low melting solids (e.g. paraffin wax and naphthalene ) or polymers (e.g. polyethylene , polypropylene and polystyrene ).

    Oil shale contains combustible material derived from fossiliz ed plant residues; the oil obtained by heating the shale is generally regarded as a synthetic fuel (or synfuel ) rather than a fossil fuel

    Largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) is when burning the fossil fuel by humans. Under excessive fuel combustion unburned hy drocarbon (HCs) and

  • particulates will be the undesirable combustion by products that pollutes the environment

    CCaaHHbb ++ ((aa++bb//44))((OO22++33..777733NN22)) ⇒⇒ aaCCOO22 ++ ((bb//22))HH22OO ++ 33..777733 ((aa++bb//44)) NN22

    [Note: a and b are number of atoms for carbon and hydrogen in the hydrocarbon fuel]

    Chemical reaction between a hydrocarbon fuel and air

  • S.5 Fuel Oil

    The te