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    2012 The Marcellus Shale Coalition. Unauthorized reproduction prohibited.




    The responsible development of clean-burning natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica Shaleformations is water intensive. Increasingly, though, water resources are transferred by pipelinefor recycle and reuse purposes, helping to minimize overall road congestion while reducing theoverall amount of water use.

    To ensure that these water resources are properly managed in way that protects the environmentas well as on-site workers, the Marcellus Shale Coalition has development a set of RecommendPractices for Water Pipelines Siting/Planning, Design, Construction and Operations.

    These Recommended Practices are underpinned by the following guidelines:

    Minimization of land disturbances by placing water pipelines in gas pipeline corridors, or planning for future conversion of pipelines from water to gas is encouraged;

    All water pipeline operations shall be planned and performed in compliance with allapplicable regulations.

    Clear roles, responsibilities and accountabilities should be established for all positionswithin the design, construction and operations organizations;

    A transition plan should be in place detailing the transfer of responsibility for the control

    of the water pipelines between different organizational units; Periodic audits and inspections should be conducted in order to ensure compliance with

    applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and federal, state,and local agency requirements; and

    Emergency contact information should be prominently displayed at appropriate locations.

    In great detail, the Water Pipeline Recommended Practices address a series of related matters,including:

    Health, Safety and Environment , covering permitting, proper worker equipment and practices, contractor safety, maintenance management systems, as well as emergency

    response plans; Pre-Job Meeting Guidelines , to ensure employees, contractors, vendors and other

    personnel have proper training and understand procedures; Materials and Waste Management , to make certain plans are in place prior to

    construction that account factors such as containment and spill prevention measures; Routing and Installation , which require a host of engineering, environmental,

    construction, operations, maintenance and Right-of-Way considerations; and

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    Design Considerations , to ensure that the pipelines are safe at the intended operating pressures, can be drained to prevent freezing, can be pressure-tested properly, and arecompatible with the fluids being conveyed.

    The Water Pipeline Recommended Practices also outline a series of guidelines and proceduresfor the overall permitting process, as well as testing, maintenance and monitoring methods.

    Taken together, the Water Pipeline Recommended Practices will help MSC members fulfill theorganizations mission of providing the safest possible workplace and implementing state-of-the-art environmental protection aimed at ensuring the safe and responsible development of theregions natural gas resources.

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    This document provides general guidance on recommended practices for the subject(s)addressed. It is offered as a reference aid and is designed to assist industry professionals inimproving their effectiveness. It is not intended to establish or impose binding requirements.

    Nothing herein constitutes, is intended to constitute, or shall be deemed to constitute the settingor determination of legal standards of care in the performance of the subject activities. Theforegoing disclaimers apply to this document notwithstanding any expressions or terms in thetext that may conflict or appear to conflict with the foregoing.

    Section 1Introduction

    1.1 MSC Guiding Principles

    We, the members of the Marcellus Shale Coalition, embrace and operate by the followingguiding principles:

    We provide the safest possible workplace for our employees, our contractors, and in the

    communities in which we operate; We implement state-of-the-art environmental protection across our operations; We continuously improve our practices and seek transparency in our operations; We strive to attract and retain a talented and engaged local workforce; We are committed to being responsible members of the communities in which we work; We encourage spirited public dialogue and fact-based education about responsible shale

    gas development; and We conduct our business in a manner that will provide sustainable and broad-based

    economic and energy security benefits for all.

    We recognize that to succeed in business, we must not only embrace these principles, we must

    live by them each and every day. This will be our legacy.

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    1.2 Purpose

    These recommended practices address relevant considerations and guidelines for WaterPipelines Siting/Planning, Design, Construction and Operations. These recommended

    practices support our guiding principles.

    Section 2General

    2.1 All water pipeline operations shall be planned and performed in compliance with allapplicable regulations. All applicable governmental permits shall be obtained prior tocommencement of operations.

    2.2 Clear roles, responsibilities and accountabilities should be established for all positionswithin the design, construction and operations organizations.

    2.3 A transition plan should be in place detailing the transfer of responsibility for the controlof the water pipelines between different organizational units.

    2.4 Periodic audits and inspections should be conducted in order to ensure compliance withapplicable OSHA and federal, state and local agency requirements.

    2.5 Emergency contact information should be prominently displayed at appropriate locations.

    Section 3Health, Safety and the Environment

    3.1 General

    Operators and contractor personnel involved in the management and supervision ofwater pipeline design, construction and operation need to be aware of and complywith applicable environmental requirements, including those contained in site-specific permits and approval processes. Likewise, company policies and proceduresregarding health and safety should be communicated and followed by all personnelinvolved in water pipeline design construction and operations.

    Operators and contractor personnel involved in the management and supervision ofwater pipeline design, construction and operation shall be aware of and comply withapplicable provisions of OSHA regulations found at 29 CFR 1910 (General Industry)and 29 CFR 1926 (Construction), as well as the OSHA General Duty Clause to

    provide a workplace free from recognized hazards. Some of the more pertinentOSHA provisions are highlighted below as a reminder to users of this RecommendedPractice (RP).

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    Personnel who may be exposed to potentially hazardous conditions or materialsshould be made aware of the hazards and be provided with training to manage therisks of exposure, the limitations, proper use of personal protective equipment, other

    precautions to be taken, emergency procedures to be followed, and any required

    additional measures such as exposure monitoring. Water pipeline operations safety, environmental incidents and significant near misses

    should be investigated and recorded to determine root causes and identify actions to prevent a recurrence.

    Neither alcoholic beverages nor illegal drugs shall be allowed on any water pipelineright-of-way or facility. Current Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for pipelinematerials such as cleaning agents, bonding agents, anti-corrosion agents, adhesives,etc., should be easily accessible.

    Smoking shall only be allowed in designated smoking areas. Excessive working hours contribute to fatigue and impairment of mental alertness.

    Personnel engaged in water pipeline-related operations should work no more than 16

    hours without rest during any 24-hour period. All equipment, materials and services should be fit for the intended purpose and be in

    compliance with both local regulations and industry standards and specifications asrequired.

    Connections should not be hammered, adjusted or tightened while under pressure. If a bolted fitting is leaking during operations, the pipeline should be taken out of service,depressurized, and the bolts should be tightened immediately to control leakage.

    3.2 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.132 requires the following usage of PPE to reduce

    employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are notfeasible or effective enough to produce an acceptable level of safety:

    Head protection - hard hats must comply with ANSI Z889.1-1986. Foot protection - safety-toe footwear should be boot style and show labels as meeting

    requirements of either ANSI Z41 or ASTM F2412 and F2413. Eye and face protection - safety glasses with side shields must comply with ANSI

    Z87.1-1989. Face shields and/or chemical goggles must be worn during chemicalhandling/transfers. The MSDS should be consulted for proper eye and face protectiveequipment.

    Hand protection - hand protection should be worn when hands are exposed to hazardssuch as absorption, cuts, punctures, chemicals and harmful temperature extremes.

    Hearing protection - areas where high noise levels exist should be identified andhearing protection should be used.

    Respiratory protection a suitable respirator should be utilized anytime air iscontaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays or vapors.

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    Flame Resistant Clothing (FRC) - Operators should provide and ensure the use ofFRC necessary to protect employees from burns due to potential flash fires asspecified by OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.132 during hot work operations.

    3.3 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

    Operators need to store and transport flammable and combustible liquids in appropriatecontainers pursuant to OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.106 and 1200, as well asDepartment of Transportation (DOT), state and local regulations. All containers must beaffixed with either a National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) label or a HazardousMaterials Information System (HMIS) label or manufacturers label.

    3.4 Fire Protection

    Fire extinguishers should be suitably located, readily available, properly maintained, and

    plainly labeled as to their type and method of operation per OSHA Standard 29 CFR1910.157. Portable fire extinguishers should be tagged with a durable tag showing thedate of the last inspection, maintenance or recharge. Any fire extinguishers that have

    been used should be taken out of service and replaced.

    3.5 Contractors Safety and Maintenance Management System

    The contractors safety management system should include Job Safety Analysis(JSA), pre-job safety meetings, inspection and audit programs, action-tracking

    processes, personnel training, and competencies. All designated company representatives and contractors should participate in the

    primary contractors safety meetings. Documentation of safety meetings should bekept on file and available to company representatives on request. Contractors should have a maintenance management system in place for their

    equipment. All safety critical equipment should be included in the maintenancemanagement system, including load-bearing, lifting, hoisting and pressure-containingequipment.

    3.6 Emergency Response Plans

    Water pipeline construction and operations should have plans to cover emergencymanagement, spill contingency and pipeline rupture response. Emergency Response

    Plans should be maintained at appropriate pipeline locations and offices. Applicable portions of the Emergency Response Plans should be communicated to the appropriatelocal and state emergency response agencies. Emergency response drills are encouragedwhere practical.

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    3.7 Vehicle Safety

    Abide by all traffic laws and regulations. Forklifts and aerial lifts need to be operated by trained and certified operators only,

    never driven off location, and operated to avoid overhead power lines. Use spotters, barricades and flagging tape when appropriate. Be aware of unstable or uneven ground and overhead power lines. Back into parking space if possible to best facilitate immediate evacuation. Non-essential vehicles should be parked at least 100 feet from a well or other source

    of flammable material.

    3.8 Excavation

    OSHA defines an excavation as any man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in theearths surface as formed by earth removal. If an excavation is more than five feet in

    depth, there must be a protective system in place while workers are present in theexcavation. Excavations more than four feet in depth must have a way to get in and out,usually a ladder, for every 25 feet of horizontal travel.

    OSHA requires that regardless of the depth on an excavation, a competent person mustinspect conditions at the site on a daily basis and as frequently as necessary during the

    progress of work to assure that the hazards associated with excavations are eliminated before workers are allowed to enter. A competent person has the following qualifications:

    Thorough knowledge of the OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1926.650-652. Understands how to classify soil types. Knows the different types and proper use of excavation safety equipment.

    Has the ability to recognize unsafe conditions, the authority to stop work when unsafeconditions exist, and the knowledge of how to correct the unsafe conditions.

    The estimated location of utility installations, such as sewer, telephone, fuel, electric,water lines, or any other underground installations that reasonably may be expected to beencountered during excavation work, shall be determined prior to opening an excavation.Activate the One-Call System based on state requirements.

    3.9 Hoisting and Lifting Equipment

    Fixed or portable hoisting and lifting equipment need to be installed and maintained pursuant to manufacturers specifications. Such equipment should only be operated by properly trained personnel. Prior to lifting operations consider the following:

    Major lifting operations should be pre-planned. Crane inspections, certifications and daily inspection logs must be current and

    available on location for review as per OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.179 and1910.180.

    Inspect and use proper rigging on loads, including but not limited to load ratings,cable condition and anti-two block sensors.

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    Body position: Always leave yourself an escape route if you are the spotter or banksman. Do not stand under suspended loads.

    Use tag lines when appropriate and watch out for swinging or shifting loads. Review air hoist, winches and laydown bucket line hazards. Hand-spliced wires and slings should not be used for lifting. Homemade or flame cut pad eyes are not recommended. Crane operations should be under the direct control of a banksman who should not

    otherwise be involved in the lifting operation.

    3.10 Hot Work Permits

    In general, any work activity that causes or can cause a source of ignition for acombustible or flammable gas, liquid or material should be conducted under a Hot WorkPermit as per OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.252. Examples of work activities include,

    but are not limited to, open flames, welding, brazing and grinding. Examples of potentialflammable or combustible fuel sources include, but are not limited to, wellheads, tanks

    and pressure relief devices. When performing water pipeline work at or in the immediatevicinity of a gas well, gas pipeline or any other potential gas source, consider thefollowing advice when conducting work under a Hot Work Permit:

    When in proximity to well or gas source, use a Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) meter,ensure fire extinguishers are readily available, and conduct a fire watch.

    Position electrical or fired equipment away from gas pipelines or other sources if possible.

    Receive permission from the gas pipeline/other source supervisor before beginninghot work.

    Use fire protection tarps if necessary.

    3.11 Confined Space Entry

    Operators should provide a permit-required confined space program that controls and protects employees from permit space hazards and regulates employee entry into permitspaces per OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.146. A "confined space" is defined as a spacethat:

    Is large enough and configured so that an employee can bodily enter and performassigned work;

    Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos,storage bins, hoppers, vaults and pits are spaces that may have limited means ofentry).; and

    Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

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    3.12 Energy Isolation

    OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.147 covers the servicing and maintenance of machines andequipment in which the unexpected energization or startup of the machines or equipment,

    or the release of stored energy, could cause injury to employees. The following should beconsidered for the control of such hazardous energy:

    Disconnect power source and controls prior to repairing all equipment, such ashydraulic tongs, power packs, motors, engines, hydraulic power units and cylinders.

    Any operation which requires the isolation of energy should utilize Lockout/Tagout(make sure equipment is out of service prior to repairing). Examples of stored energysources include load binders, pressured lines and air hoist operations.

    Pressure testing/pumping: Clear personnel, secure lines with clamps/cables/chains,and verify flow path. Inspect threads on swedges and nipples.

    Pressure Washing: A positive displacement pump should not be used without a

    bypass and a secondary means of overpressure protection. Bleed off pressure and keep it vented when removing a flange or cap. Keep electric cords/wiring, electrical grounding and protective guards in place at all


    Section 4Safety Critical Tasks for Water Pipeline and Appurtenances Operations

    4.1 The intent is for the water pipeline construction and operation supervisor (or designate) tohave direct involvement in the planning for these critical operations. This would includea pre-job safety and operations planning meeting to ensure full job requirements andresponsibilities are understood. The supervisor or designate should audit/verify, and

    provide assurance/oversight that the job is executed as planned.

    4.2 Supervisors should consider production and facility safety critical tasks whendetermining if a pre-job safety assessment is necessary. These tasks include, but are notlimited to, the following:

    Pre-move hazard assessment (including but not limited to: condition of roads, powerline clearance).

    Permit to work assignments (including, but not limited to, hot work or confinedspace).

    Simultaneous operations with gas lines, nearby wells, access roads or otherconstruction operations.

    Any critical lifting operations. Movement of equipment to, from and onto location. Spotting of equipment on location. Equipment pressure testing.

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    Section 5Pre-Job Safety Meeting Guidelines

    5.1 Supervisors should identify hazards/risks specific to the job prior to beginning work orconducting a safety meeting. Contractors, vendors and any other personnel to be at the

    job site should be included the safety meeting.

    Always ask what if? before every job to determine the biggest hazards and risksof the job and how they can be avoided.

    Use the contractors JSA, procedures, checklists and other available tools. The company water pipeline supervisor should review the contractors safety policies,

    standard procedures, JSA, and other related documents prior to beginning operations.A walk-through audit with a contractor representative is recommended and shouldinclude topics such as equipment, pre-job planning, procedure review, siteorientation, hazard discussion and other conditions.

    5.2 A comprehensive pre-job safety meeting should precede safety-critical tasks (see list forexamples) and should include the following topics:

    PPE that will be required. General safety information for prevention of slips, trips, falls and proper vehicle

    safety. Energy Isolation:

    o Electricity Lockout/Tagout and energized componentso Pressure Lockout/Tagout and line of fire

    Job-site communication.

    Section 6Materials and Waste Management

    6.1 Operators should have a materials management strategy prior to initiating construction ormaintenance activities. At a minimum, the materials management strategy shouldinclude:

    MSDS; Containment protocols, including spill prevention measures; Inventory/measurement tracking to identify consumption anomalies; and Vegetation removal and topsoil management plans.

    6.2 Each operations site should have a waste management strategy prior to initiatingconstruction or maintenance activities. The waste management strategy should include:

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    Waste storage facilities and locations that provide labels and containment; MSDS; Differentiation of exempt and non-exempt construction/maintenance wastes

    according to the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Contingency plans to contain and cleanup spills; Waste treatment, transfer and disposal procedures; Waste tracking and reporting protocols; Mechanisms to ensure personnel are properly trained in waste management; and Completion of required documentation for transportation of wastes as required by

    DOT and state waste management rules and regulations.

    6.3 The location layout should allow for safe storage, handling, use and disposal, and takeinto account:

    Recommended safe handling practices; Chemical and physical compatibility; Ignitability and proximity to potential ignition sources; Moisture, precipitation and storm water runoff; Environmental conditions; and Distance from surface waters and allowance for spill containment and cleanup.

    6.4 Unused chemicals and materials should be removed from the construction/maintenancesite as soon as it is practical to do so.

    Section 7Alignment Planning, Engineering and Environmental Considerations

    7.1 General

    Water pipelines are constructed to serve one or more purposes. At a minimum, they areinstalled to move fluids from a source to a destination -- be it from a freshwater orrecycled water source to a hydraulic fracturing operation, or to return flowback or

    produced water to a collection point for recycling or proper disposal. However, with proper planning, these pipelines may have more than one function or the ability to servemultiple wells or pads. Likewise, with multiple stacked gas-bearing formations, water

    pipelines can be used for the stimulation of multiple formations. Many operators findthat, with proper planning, these pipelines can be valuable conduits beyond the initialwell-stimulation operations, including for potential future conversion to gas-gathering

    pipelines. Given these numerous short- and long-term considerations, pipelines will varyfor each location and application. Each site and potential use will provide its own set ofrequirements regarding the pipeline materials and their installation. Key elements thatimpact planning, design and installation are: the desired service life of the pipeline; range

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    of fluids or gases to be transported; routing constraints including dense population areasand areas where securing easements is difficult; soil and subsurface conditions; ledgerock; utility conflicts; wetland and other sensitive area avoidance; and road/highwaycrossings.

    7.2 Routing and Installation Considerations

    Pipeline routing entails several criteria. Routing plans needs to consider a host ofengineering, environmental, construction, operations and maintenance factors so that theresulting alignment and design are both cost effective and of such a character thatnecessary permits will be obtainable. Further, the alignment and design must ensure thatthe pipeline will serve all intended uses and can be readily constructed and maintained inaccordance with the operational and environmental requirements, including post-construction erosion and sediment control and stormwater management. Pump locationsand capacities, although not considered within this RP document, must also be considered

    within the route planning program.

    Routing surveys should be conducted in two parts office and field. The initial office- based survey should draw on aerial photographs, topographic maps, National WetlandsInventory maps, property ownership maps, state-maintained sensitive resourceinventories, and other readily available sources to identify challenges, constraints and

    potential optimal routings for the alignment. Once the pipelines starting location and thedelivery point are defined, a field routing survey between the two locations should beconducted. This will provide insight as to actual conditions which will be encounteredduring construction and that will need to be addressed in design and permit application

    preparation, and also allows for evaluation of alternate routings. Existing underground

    utilities should be marked per the states One-Call system to aid in identification duringthe field survey. The survey team should be a multi-disciplined party consisting of pipeline engineers, environmental scientists and permitting specialists, landmen,civil/geotechnical engineers, and the construction contractor.

    Several items to be considered are described below.

    A. The Right-of-way (ROW) width should be determined based on several factorsincluding both temporary and long term requirements. Consider the use of temporarywork space during the construction phase to accommodate access for constructionequipment and laydown of materials. It may be possible to reduce the ROW afterinstallation has occurred. The long term ROW width should be based on the widthrequired for the pipeline itself and for ongoing activities such as inspection, repair andif needed, removal of the pipeline. For a typical water pipeline, the ROW widthneeds to be wide enough to allow for equipment movement on either side duringinstallation and working space to set piping, joints, valves and other items ofconstruction, as well as shoring materials for placement in the trench when needed. Aminimum ROW width of 20 feet is typically required, although widths of 40 and 50

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    feet are not uncommon. Access points to the ROW from both sides of perpendicular barriers like streams must be available and verified during the routing survey. Tominimize the footprint of oil and gas operations, use of existing ROWs, or the sharingof proposed ROWs for gathering lines, access roads or transmission lines, is highly


    B. In many cases, a water pipeline will be in the same ROW as gas gathering lines. Inthese cases, the water pipeline should have only the amount of separation from thegas pipelines necessary to allow installation and service to the water pipeline withoutimpacting the gas pipelines (or as per individual company requirements). Access to

    both gas and water pipelines during construction, operation and maintenance andremoval should be taken into account. Also, unless state permitting requirementsspecifically specify otherwise, the water pipeline will need to be permitted separatelyfrom the gas pipeline.

    C. A routing survey should be conducted to evaluate potential pipeline routes and toidentify potential conflicts. In order to complete a routing survey, the operator shouldobtain landowner permission to enter their property. Routing data also provides pre-construction conditions and minimizes potential damage claims during and afterconstruction. Items that should be evaluated during the site visit and, if field survey

    plans are to be prepared, included on survey plans, are:

    Length of pipeline to be installed; Utilities: Are existing utility lines located in the proposed route? Identify and

    locate both horizontal and vertical locations to avoid conflicts; Waterway crossings should include information on water levels that can be

    expected during installation; Existing and proposed rights-of-way for gas pipelines, highways and railroads

    (requires baseline stationing and right-of-way layout information); Wetland areas should be evaluated for boundary location of wetlands and

    buffer zones. Other potential high-value habitat or habitats of threatened orendangered species should be observed as well;

    Dwellings and other development features that would inhibit restrict pipelineinstallation, or that may require sound attenuation features for pumps installedalong the pipeline;

    Cemeteries, schools, other buildings and cultural resources; Identification of roadway, sidewalk and driveway materials (bituminous,

    concrete, gravel, etc.); Utility pole locations and identification numbers; Landscaped areas; Pavement conditions; Berms and curbing locations; and Ledge and boulder outcrops;

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    Fences and stonewalls, along with identification of the medium (i.e., woodfences, stone walls, etc.);

    Edges of water bodies, rivers, creeks, streams and water levels at time of thesurvey; and

    Boring locations. (if borings are taken after the survey, a minimum of two tiesshould be taken into the field and added to base drawing sheets).

    D. Public roadway rights-of way can be used to install the pipelines. Buried piping can be installed either under the roadway surface or in the shoulder areas, providedsufficient space is available. Surface installations can be added along shoulders with

    proper protection from traffic and pedestrians. Public roadway installations requirecoordination with the local authorities having jurisdiction over the road. Additionalcosts will be incurred in order to restore paving or road surfaces to pre-constructionconditions. Road installations will also require traffic control and signage tominimize potential traffic impacts. A minimum bury depth of four feet should be

    utilized to prevent traffic load impacts and minimize potential freezing.

    E. Surface installation of pipelines can be used for temporary or short-term installations.When using surface pipelines, operators should be aware of freezing conditions and

    properly drain the pipeline under these conditions to prevent ice damage. Surfaceinstalled pipe should be laid in areas that are not subject to traffic or pedestrianaccess. Driveways or road crossings require a shallow bury of the pipe across thedrive or road. When surface piping is to be used, joints need to be restrained. Thiscan be accomplished by the use of restrained joints such as fused piping, locking

    joints or mechanical restraint systems as described later in this document.

    F. Highway/waterway/railroad crossings pose additional requirements and challenges tothe pipe installation. Highway and roadway crossings are under the jurisdiction of thestate, county, and/or municipal highway/road agency/department. Crossings requiringopen-cut trenching may not be allowed due to traffic considerations. In order to crossa highway, trenchless installation, such as directional drilling or jacking, andinstallation of a casing pipe may be required. If culverts can be located, it issometimes possible to install the pipeline inside the existing culvert to cross ahighway, depending upon which agency has jurisdiction of the highway (someagencies prohibit installation inside existing culverts). However, this possibilitywould require a hydraulic analysis to determine the impact to the flow capacity of theculvert if a pipe is installed inside. This method, if permitted, should be limited to

    temporary or short-term and those that have a small diameter with respect to theculvert opening size. Waterway crossings are typically installed by excavating thestream bed, by installing the pipe in a bridge structure crossing over the waterway, or

    by directional drilling beneath the stream bed. If a buried or directional drillapproach is used, a minimum bury depth of four feet should be utilized to preventscouring damage and freezing. In some areas with subsurface fractures or poorsubsurface conditions, horizontal directional drilling may not be suitable, as drilling

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    muds potentially forced out of fractures and entering streams may alarm residents andtrigger calls to regulatory enforcement agencies.

    G. When installing pipe in rural areas, the disturbed soils should be prepared as a

    seedbed and seeded to prevent erosion.

    7.3 Geotechnical Considerations

    Buried pipe installation requires knowledge of soil conditions. In order to determine theconstruction and bedding needs for buried pipe, a soil investigation program should beinitiated. This can also provide a basis for proposed pipeline routing and constructioncost estimate data.

    A geotechnical program typically consists of soil borings taken to a depth ofapproximately two feet below the proposed pipe invert. Typically borings are taken at

    500-foot intervals along the proposed route. At least one soil sample should be collectedfrom a depth of three to four feet below the surface.

    If a particular area such as a stream crossing, railroad crossing or casing jacking/directional drilling location is anticipated, borings should be taken at each side ofthe stream and at proposed jacking and receiving pits. Borings at proposed entrance/exit

    pits should be taken to a depth of 1.5 times the expected depth of the pit.

    If refusal is encountered, coring may be required to determine if the refusal is the resultof a random boulder or an extensive rock ledge. Coring will provide informationconcerning the obstruction and the quality of the rock encountered.

    When trenchless installation of a pipeline is proposed, borings should be taken along the proposed trenchless route to a depth 1.5 times the expected installation depth. It should be noted that trenchless technology installations typically require the pipe to be installedat depths greater than the normal four-foot bury. Soil samples for trenchlessinstallations should be taken at approximately four-foot intervals, or where the materialchanges occur. Laboratory sieve/gradation analysis should be performed on thetrenchless soil boring samples.

    Soil borings should include depth of borings, blow counts, type of soils encountered andelevation of the ground water table.

    Boring locations should be surveyed with a minimum of two ties to permanent structuresshown on the survey base plans.

    7.4 Wetlands, Waterways and Ecologically Sensitive Areas

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    Installing pipe in wetland and stream/river/floodplain areas and buffer zones may requirereview and approval by local, state and federal regulatory agencies. Likewise, sensitivehabitats or potential archaeological sites as typically identified via searches of stateinventory databases should be reviewed in the field and avoided if possible or mitigated if

    avoidance is not an option. Each wetland, waterway area and other sensitive resourcesites will have specific constraints that will need to be addressed during the design, permitting and construction of the pipelines.

    Wetland or other regulated sensitive areas need to be defined early on during the design process, and meetings with permit officials should be held to discuss proposed work andexpected impacts to the sites.

    Generally, work within wetland, riparian areas and buffer zones will require use ofsedimentation barriers such as filter socks, hay bales, silt fence or other approved devicesalong the area of impact. Disposal of excess materials will be regulated, as will the

    restoration of the disturbed areas. Also, storage of materials such as fuels, oils andchemicals may not be allowed within the protected areas. Additional considerations are provided in the following section on permitting.

    Section 8Permitting and Clearances

    8.1 General

    Most activities that require a land disturbance or that potentially impact any wetlands orwaterways require some type of federal, state, local or joint permits. Similarly, many

    activities associated with natural gas development are regulated by various statutes andregulations. Natural gas water pipeline construction involves many activities, includingland clearing, road construction, pipeline construction, road and railroad crossing, andsubsequent operations and maintenance.

    Each state and municipality, the federal government, railroads, and other entities have permitting and clearances requirements that are required prior to pipeline construction. Itis incumbent on all entities involved in developing and operating water pipelines to beaware of all pre-construction permitting/clearance requirements, as well as

    permit/clearance requirements that apply to operations, maintenance and potentialdecommissioning.

    The permit application review and approval process can be lengthy in some casesexceeding 12 months. It is essential to submit a complete application to appropriateagencies well in advance of scheduled construction.

    8.2 Specific Permits

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    Environmental and clearance permit requirements, which may be needed for a water pipeline project, can include the following groups of activities:

    Road construction; Land clearing; Pipeline construction and operation; Wetlands and waterways crossings; Work within areas having threatened or endangered species and/or important;

    historical and cultural resources; Road and railroad crossings; and Air or noise emissions (principally for pumping facilities)

    The above list is not intended to be comprehensive or address the full range of permittingrequirements for various locations and projects. The permitting requirements willultimately depend on site-specific conditions and related local regulatory requirements.

    8.3 Permit Identification

    Prior to determining which permits may be needed for a specific project, an analysis ofthe project should be performed that looks at the potential necessary permits andestablishes a timeline for obtainment. If needed, a pre-application conference withinvolved agencies can greatly enhance this evaluation. Following this task, a permittingchecklist can be developed that can serve as a guide for the project team.

    Generally, this task is performed in conjunction with the alignment planning tasksdescribed in the previous section, and involves an office (desktop) review of available

    federal and state surveys of natural resources, critical habitats, endangered species,wetlands, soils, cultural resources and other potentially site development limiting criteria.

    8.4 Permitting Strategy

    It is critical to develop a permitting strategy that optimizes company resources and capitalwhile effectively navigating the permitting realm. While each company or project teammay develop a unique strategy for a variety of reasons, a general theme to embrace forsuccessful permitting involves the steps outlined below. Although this approach wasinitially brought to light in the area of wetland permitting, the concept has wideapplicability. These specific steps include the following:

    Avoidance eliminating activities that impact resources deemed valuable, unique orcritical to any agency greatly increases the success of obtaining a permit.

    Minimization once it is determined that a resource is going to be unavoidably impacted by a particular project, reducing the amount of regulated activity in an area or near a

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    particular resource can be extremely beneficial. Minimization attempts should be well-documented for reference in future projects.

    Compensation offsetting unavoidable impacts is extremely important and must be done

    in concert with the relevant regulatory bodies to establish replacement ratios or monetarycompensation needed to access mitigation banks

    8.5 Permit Application Documents

    Permit applications must include all required documentation for the entire project being permitted. This includes pipeline engineering and design documents, environmental andcultural features, impact assessments and associated mitigation.

    8.6 Permit Tracking

    Successful obtainment of permits requires the careful monitoring of submission dates andthe anticipated review periods. Careful monitoring, including staying in regular contactwith relevant agency staff, can greatly reduce response time and produce more efficient


    8.7 Permit Maintenance and Conformance During and Following Construction

    Once construction is set to begin, permit-required controls must be put in place, and thosecontrols must be adhered to throughout the period of construction. This includes specificguidelines, as well as all elements associated with avoidance, minimization andcompensation.

    8.8 Permit Closeout

    Following the completion of construction, permits required to initiate the work typicallyhave closeout or maintenance/monitoring requirements. To maintain up-to-datecompliance with permit conditions, all closeout or monitoring activities must becompleted within a given timeframe. Failure to perform these tasks can negativelyimpact the environmental compliance profile of your project.

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    Section 9General Installation Considerations

    9.1 General

    Water pipelines may be used to convey freshwater, flowback water, produced water,and/or blended water. The water to be conveyed through a pipeline must be compatiblewith the pipe material selected. Above-ground and below-ground pipes each have factorsthat must be taken into account. Pipe diameter selection will be a function of delivery raterequirements and other factors. Each pipe material has varying requirements forinstallation, and should be installed in accordance with the pipe manufacturers criteriaand instructions. Installation guidelines based on local procedures and requirementsshould also be considered. Other installation topics are listed below.

    9.2 Installation Guidelines

    Installation procedures should be obtained from pipe manufacturers. Varyingmaterials have different requirements for installation, bedding and testing techniques.

    Pipe delivered to the site should be handled with care to prevent damage tointerior/exterior coating systems, cracking and breakage.

    Chains should not make direct contact with the pipe during lifting. Canvas beltsshould be used to prevent damage.

    Gaskets should be stored in enclosed areas to prevent degradation due to sunlight. Pipe should be stored in a central location and with sufficient quantities strung out

    along the pipeline route to allow for ease of installation. Pipe ends should be closed to prevent animals and debris from entering. After trench excavation is completed, pipe should be lowered into the trench and

    placed on firm bedding materials. Backfill should be placed in 12-inch lifts andcompacted. Large boulders, rocks, etc., should not be dropped on the pipe during

    backfilling. Pipe joints should be carefully made. Joints utilizing rubber gasketsshould be cleaned and lubricated. Lubricant should be provided by the pipemanufacturer to ensure compatibility with the gasket materials.

    Fused or welded joints should be made above ground prior to trench installation. Fused joints should be made by certified fusion technicians. Fusion equipment

    should be calibrated and certified for the application. Standards for welding pressures, times, cooling periods, etc., should be in compliance

    with the pipe manufacturers requirements. Manufacturers published tolerances should not be exceeded when bending pipe

    lengths to achieve a given radius of curvature in a pipe ditch. If thrust blocks are to be used, they should be placed behind each fitting and tee.

    Blocks should be sized to provide proper bearing area against undisturbed soils. Mechanical restraint systems should be installed on each fitting and valve. Restraints

    are to be installed on adjacent lengths of pipe on either side of each fitting or valve.

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    Lengths to be restrained are determined based on pipe material lengths, pressures andother criteria. Manufacturers should be contacted to provide data on installation ofrestraints.

    Plastic or HDPE pipe should have metallic tracing tape installed along the route

    approximately two feet below the surface. If pipe is to be installed above grade, pipe joints should be either fused or

    mechanically restrained to eliminate the need for thrust blocking. If pipe is to be installed above grade, insulation may be required to prevent freezing. Exposed piping should be installed in locations that will minimize damage due to

    vehicular traffic and pedestrians.

    9.3 General Pipeline Requirements

    Pipelines should be installed with isolation valves at regular intervals to allow forisolating the pipeline in order to provide maintenance and testing. At a minimum,

    valves should be located at the source and at the discharge points. Additional valvesshould be located based on site-specific and regulatory requirements.

    Valved drains should be installed at or near low points, taking into account regulatorywater body and other buffer requirements to allow for decommissioning of the

    pipeline and/or draining during maintenance periods. For pipelines carrying fluids other than fresh water, containment should be placed

    under each drain valve, and air releases should be continually monitored and cleaned. High points of the pipeline should be equipped with air/vacuum valves to allow for

    removal of trapped air and to allow for draining of the pipeline. Valves on above ground installations should have handles removed or installed with

    locks to prevent unauthorized closure. Below grade valves require boxes to allow access to the operating nut. Valve

    operating keys will need to be supplied to allow for the opening/closing of the buriedvalves.

    Repair clamps and sections of pipe should be available to make necessary repairs. Cleanout valves should be located at appropriate locations to accommodate pipe

    sediment cleanout. Where necessary, above-ground installations should be covered with appropriate

    cover material to allow vehicular access, to a maximum width of 50 feet.

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    Section 10Hydraulics

    10.1 Determining Pipeline Diameter

    Determination of proper pipeline diameter is required not only to minimize the cost of pipeline materials, but also to reduce construction and power costs associated with pumping water from the supply to the point of usage. Water pipelines are referred to aspressure conduits, and the resistance of flow in the pipeline occurs when waterencounters frictional resistance. This resistance results in head loss, which is determined

    by flow velocity and roughness of the interior surface of the pipe. Use of smooth-walled pipes, such as those made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), will result in lower headlosses, while a corrugated wall pipe will have rougher walls, causing turbulence andgreater head losses.

    Each pipeline material has a numerical value referred to as the Hazen-Williams C-factor.The C-factor can vary based on the age and material. Higher C-factors result in lowerfriction impacts. Over time, as pipes age or tuburculate, the C-factor will decrease.The average C-factor for various new pipe materials are:

    Cement lined ductile iron 140 Concrete 120 PVC 150 HDPE 150 Corrugated steel 60 Bitumastic-lined steel 140

    Typically, a C-factor of 110 is used in design to account for future pipe aging and otherfactors likely to impact flow capability..

    For pressurized flow, the Hazen-Williams formula is used to determine pipeline headlosses.

    The Hazen-Williams formula is:

    Hf = 0.002083 L (100/C) 1.85 (GPM 1.85 /D 4.8655 )

    Where: Hf = Head loss due to friction (feet of water)L = Length of pipe (feet)C = Hazen-Williams C-factor (unitless)GPM = flow (gallons per minute)D = Inside diameter of pipe (inches)

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    Use of the Hazen-Williams formula shows the impact that pipe diameter has on a givenflow rate and how it impacts the system head losses. As the pipe diameter increases,friction head loss decreases and a reduction in pumping horsepower results. However,this does not mean that over sizing a pipeline will result in a better system. As pipe

    diameter increases, flow velocity decreases while material and construction costs andrequired construction work areas increase. Velocity is determined by the formula:

    V = Q/AWhere: V = Pipeline velocity (feet per second)

    Q = Flow (cubic feet per second)A = Cross sectional area of pipeline (square feet)

    Generally, an accepted rule of thumb for sizing a pipeline states that the velocityshould range between 2.5 to 7 feet per second. Pipe manufacturer tables typically include

    velocity ranges vs. head loss for varying diameters. Undersizing a pipeline results in highvelocities, increased head loss and higher pumping costs due to increased horsepowerrequirements. It should also be remembered that doubling the flow rate will double thevelocity and approximately quadruple the head loss value.

    10.2 Head Loss vs. Flow Tables

    Pipe manufacturers provide tables showing head losses vs. varying pipe materials,diameters and flow rates.

    10.3 Pressure

    Most typical water pipeline materials such as pipe, valves, fittings, etc., are designed forworking pressures of 0 to 150 psi. Maximum pressures, such as those which may occurduring a surge or water hammer, are typically in the range of 350 psi. Piping design isusually based on the expected working pressure of the system.

    During pipeline design, the pipe and appurtenance data sheets should be checked toensure that the required materials can safely handle the expected working pressure value.The working pressure value is also the basis of the pressure test conducted after the

    pipeline is installed. Normal test pressures are 1.25 to 1.5 times the maximum working pressure value, or 150 psi maximum. Pressure testing should be performed in accordancewith pipe manufactures specifications. Additional information concerning testing is

    provided in this RP.

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    Section 11Pipe Materials

    11.1 General

    Several materials are available for water transmission pipelines. Each has its own benefits, and choosing which to use should be determined by the type of installation, use,expected timeframe the pipe may be in use, ease of construction, availability and cost.Each of the described pipe materials is capable of handling fresh water. Flowback and

    produced water, which have a high salt content, should be limited to PVC, HDPE metal pipes treated with special corrosion resistant liners, or other compatible pipe materials.When selecting pipe materials, operators must consider the potential environmentalconsequence of a flowback or produced water pipeline leak or rupture and apply any risk-mitigation strategies they deem appropriate. An outline description of several commonlyused pipe materials is included below. Other pipe materials may be used depending on

    potential long-term application (such as eventual usage for gas gathering applications)and the development of any new pipeline materials.

    1. Ductile IronA. Ductile iron (DI) pipe is commonly used in water pipeline distribution and

    transmission lines. DI is available in diameters ranging from 3 to 54 inches.DI pipe is rated for pressures up to 350 psi.

    B. DI pipe can be obtained in two versions; thickness class and pressure class.Thickness class (Class 50 - Class 56) results in pipe that has thicker walls

    based on loading parameters. Pressure class pipe (PC 150 PC 350) hasthinner walls based on loading parameters. Most current installations use

    pressure class ratings. The use of pressure class pipe results in cost savingsdue to lower material weights.C. DI pipe is provided with a bituminous exterior coating. Bituminous or cement

    lining can also be specified.D. Interior coatings for fluids, which may be corrosive, are also available for DI

    pipe. Coating requirements should be confirmed with the pipe manufacturerduring design. Lining information is contained in Section 9.2.

    E. Whether pressure or thickness class DI pipe is used, the coatings, linings andexpected material life are the same.

    F. DI pipe is available in 18- and 20-foot lengthsG. Typical C-factor values for DI pipe range from C- 120 to C150.

    H. Additional information on DI pipe design and installation can be obtainedfrom pipe suppliers and the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (DIPRA)(www.dipra.org ).

    2. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

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    A. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe is available for use in pressurized watersystems if it is manufactured in accordance with American Water WorksAssociation/American National Standards Institute (AWWA/ANSI) standards.

    B. PVC pipe in diameter range of 4 to 12 inches is manufactured in accordance

    with AWWA/ANSI C-900 standard. Pipe having a diameter of 14 to 48inches is manufactured in accordance with AWWA/ANSI C-905 standard. C. PVC pipe is commonly furnished with push-on, bell and spigot gasketed

    joints. D. Fusible joint PVC pipe is also available if leak-free joints are required.E. Use PVC pipe that has an outside diameter that matches the DI pipe diameter

    to allow for direct connection between the two materials. F. For pressurized water pipe applications, do not use gravity/low pressure PVC

    pipe that is designed for sewer or drainage applications. G. Due to possible UV degradation, PVC pipe should not be used for above-

    ground installations. Modified PVC pipe manufactured with UV inhibitors is

    discussed below. H. Typical C-factor values for PVC pipe are C-140 to C-150.I. PVC pipe is typically manufactured in 20-foot lengths.J. Fittings for use on PVC pipe are typically ductile iron and mechanical joint.

    If corrosion is a consideration, fittings should be furnished with interior protective coatings.

    K. AWWA/ANSI C-900 PVC pipe is available in pressure range of 165 to 305 psi.

    L. AWWA/ANSI C-905 PVC pipe is available in pressure range of 80 to 235 psi.M. Additional information on PVC pipe design and installation can be obtained

    from pipe suppliers and the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association (www.uni-

    bell.org ).3. Modified PVC Pipe

    A. A modified PVC pressure pipe (such as Yelomine ) should be utilized forabove-grade applications.

    B. Modified PVC pipe is manufactured with impact modifiers and UV inhibitors.These modifiers provide higher impact resistance and allow for long term UVexposure.

    C. Modified PVC pipe is available in 2 to 16-inch diameters.D. Pressure range for modified PVC is 100 to 315 psi.E. For pressurized water supply applications, do not use PVC pipe that is

    designed for sewer or drainage applications.F. Use PVC pipe that has a diameter which matches that of DI pipe to allow fordirect connection between the two materials

    G. Modified PVC pipe can be furnished with locking joints to eliminateadditional thrust restraint systems. Pipe used in non-permanent installationsshould be furnished with non-permanent use joints. The use of this type jointallows for ease of disassembly and reuse of the pipe in other locations. If the

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    pipe is to be installed underground for long period, it should be furnished with permanent-use restrained joints.

    H. Fittings with locking joints can be furnished with the modified PVC pipe.I. Typical C-value for modified PVC pipe is C-150.

    J. Modified PVC pipe is available in 20-foot lengths.K. Additional information on modified PVC pipe can be obtained from pipesuppliers and the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association (www.uni-bell.org ).

    4. High Density Polyethylene PipeA. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe is suitable for water distribution and

    transmission. B. HDPE is available in diameters of -inch to 54-inches. Water supply pipe is

    manufactured in accordance with AWWA/ANSI C-901 for pipe less than 3inches in diameter and AWWA/ANSI C-906 for pipe 4 to 54 inches indiameter. HDPE pipe comes in up to 50-foot lengths and requires fusion

    welding to join each length together. Fusion welded joints result in zeroleakage.

    C. HDPE can be obtained with an outside diameter that matches other pipe types,allowing for direct connection between the two materials.

    D. Fusion fittings and bends are available. Mechanical joint and flanged jointadapters can also be used to allow connecting to other pipe materials.

    E. Typical C-value for HDPE pipe is C-150.F. Maximum pressure of HDPE pipe is available up to 267 psi, in accordance

    with manufacturers specifications. G. Additional information on HDPE pipe design and installation can be obtained

    from pipe suppliers and the Plastics Pipe Institute (www.plasticpipe.org ).

    11.2 Linings

    Several linings are available for use with ductile iron pipe materials. The linings are based on the expected use of the pipeline and should be specified during the design phase of the work. Pipe manufacturers should be consulted to obtain specificrecommendations and lining thicknesses based on expected service conditions.

    Linings and their applications include:

    A. Portland Cement Mortar with sealcoat: Used for freshwater and drinking water

    having maximum temperature of 150 F.B. Portland Cement Mortar without sealcoat: Used for seawater, flowback and produced water, non-septic gravity sewer, sanitary force mains and reclaimedwaters, having maximum temperatures of 212 F.

    C. Fusion bonded Epoxy: Used on fittings only and for use in freshwater and drinkingwater, non-septic gravity sewer, sanitary force mains and reclaimed waters, havingmaximum temperatures of 120 to 150 F.

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    D. Ceramic quartz filled Amine Cured Novalac Epoxy: Used for septic sewers, acids,alkali waste, pickling brine, flowback and produced water, and reclaimed waterhaving maximum temperatures of 120 to 150 F.

    11.3 Gasket Materials

    Pipe joint gaskets are available in several materials to provide sealing when in contactwith various fluids and temperature ranges. The gasket materials are based on theexpected contents and temperature of the pipeline, and should be specified during thedesign phase of the work. Pipe manufacturers should be consulted to obtain specificrecommendations concerning materials based on expected service conditions.

    Gasket Material Max. Service Temperature ( F) Pipeline Contents

    SBR (Styrene Butadiene) 150 Sea water, flowback and produced water, drinking water,reclaimed water, storm water,

    raw waterEPDM (Ethylene Propylene

    Diene Monomer)212 Sea water, flowback and

    produced water, drinking water,reclaimed water, storm water,

    raw water Nitrile (NBR) 150 Chemicals, oils, refined

    petroleum, flowback and produced water, drinking water,

    reclaimed water, storm water,

    raw water Neoprene (CR)(Polychloroprene)

    200 Sea water, flowback and produced water, reclaimed water,

    storm water, raw waterViton, Fluorel (FKM)

    (Fluorocarbon)212 Many chemicals and solvents,

    chlorinated hydrocarbons,drinking water, reclaimed water,

    raw water, storm water

    Source: Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association

    Section 12Pipe Joining

    12.1 General

    Pipeline, fittings and valves can be joined by several methods, including push-on joints,mechanical joints, welded or fused joints, Victaulic-style grooved coupling and locking

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    joints. Each joint type has a particular application and use. Designers should be familiarwith the project needs and the capabilities of the selected joining systems. Additionalinformation concerning joints, their uses and installation requirements can be obtainedfrom various pipe manufacturers and the AWWA/ANSI Standard C-111.

    1. Push-on Joints. The push-on joint is commonly used in pressurized watersystems. Push-on pipe joints consist of bell, plain end and rubber gaskets. The

    bell is equipped with an internal groove in which the gasket is seated. The plainend is beveled and the joint is assembled by pushing the plain end into the bell.This compresses the gasket and provides a watertight seal. The joint is flexibleand allows for deflection of the pipe so that the number of fittings required can bereduced. Push-on joints do not provide restraint unless additional clamp devicesor restraining gaskets are installed. Push-on joints are typically used in belowgrade installations.


    Mechanical Joints. The mechanical joint has four parts: flange cast with the bell; a rubber gasket that fits into the socket; a gland or follower ring; and teehead bolts and nuts for tightening the joint. Joint make-up is similar to that of the

    push-on joint with the exception of the bolted follower ring which compresses thegasket to provide a watertight seal. Mechanical joints do not provide jointrestraint. Special restraining fittings can be utilized if joint restraint is required.Typically, fittings and valves are furnished and installed with mechanical joints.Pipe segments typically do not require the use of mechanical joints forinstallation.

    3. Fused Joints. When HDPE or fusible PVC pipe is used, joints are typically made

    by fuse welding. This requires placing plain end pipe into heater plates, cleaningand preparing the ends and heating the element to high temperatures to melt thematerial. The two ends are then brought together and pressure applied. Thismethod provides a leak-tight joint capable of withstanding pressures equal to thatof the pipe material. If necessary, flanged and mechanical joint ends can also befused onto plain-end HDPE or PVC pipe to allow for transition to other materials,or joining to appurtenances or pumps. Fused-joint welding should be performed

    by a certified fusion technician with certified equipment.

    4. Grooved Couplings. Grooved Victaulic Style couplings joints are typicallyutilized on above-ground steel piping systems. Special coupling systems are alsoavailable for use on HDPE and PVC pipe products. The pipe is prepared with agrooved end and the coupling installed at the joint. The coupling consists of threecomponents: the housing; gasket; and nuts and bolts. The coupling providesflexible, leak-free joints that allow for pipe movement and thermal expansion.

    5. Locking Joints . Locking joints are provided by various PVC pipe manufacturersto allow for the installation of piping systems above or below grade. The joints

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    consist of an O-ring gasket seal, locking spline, and joint coupling. The lockingspline provides joint restraint for the piping system. Some manufacturer systemsare designed for permanent installations while other systems allow fastdisassembly when the piping is no longer required.

    Section 13Appurtenances

    13.1 General

    Water pipelines require the installation of various appurtenances to facilitateconstruction, testing and maintenance. While each pipeline installation is different, thefollowing is a brief description of pipeline appurtenances that may be utilized.

    13.2 Valves

    1. The three types of isolation valves used in water transmission and distribution pipelines are gate valves, butterfly valves and ball valves.

    A. Gate valves provide the ability to shut a line down for maintenance or testing.Gate valves should be used in full open or full closed position. Throttling of flowwith gate valves is not recommended because the gate can creep over time andnot maintain desired flows. Gate valves for water use typically are non-risingstem, resilient wedge type. The disc is encapsulated in a rubber-like compound,which provides a tight seal and a smooth interior to improve hydraulic flow.Buried valves are furnished with two-inch operating nuts and installed with valve

    boxes to allow for opening and closing. Above-grade installations are furnished

    with hand wheel operators.

    B. Butterfly valves also provide the ability to shut down a pipeline for maintenanceor testing. The butterfly valve has a full diameter disc which rotates up to 90degrees. Unlike the gate valve, the butterfly valve can be used to throttle flows ifrequired. Buried valves are furnished with two-inch operating nuts and installedwith valve boxes to allow for opening and closing. Above-grade installations arefurnished with hand wheel operators.

    C. Ball valves are available with diameter sizes ranging from one-fourth inch to 48inches, and are available in many materials such as carbon steel, stainless steel,

    brass, CPVC, PVC, and cast iron. Valves are also available in two-way or three-way configurations. Three-way configurations include side outlets to allow fordiverting flow. Ball valve end connections include threaded, socket weld, buttweld and flanged. Ball valves are operated with 90-degree turn handles. The

    ball provides a full-port opening to minimize hydraulic losses.

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    D. Valved tees at low points should be installed to allow the pipeline to drain. To prevent possible environmental releases, drains should not be located in or nearwaterway crossings and roadways.

    2. Air release, vacuum relief and combination valves: Trapped air resulting from initial pipeline filling and normal operations needs to be removed from the pipe to maintainflow capacity. Accumulated air can pose flow restrictions and possibly cause surges.Also, trapped air pockets will result in false test readings during pipeline pressuretesting. Vacuums created during draining or sudden breaks can be prevented by useof a vacuum relief valve. Valves should comply with AWWA/ANSI C512 standards.If clogging or corrosion may be a problem, wastewater versions of the followingvalves are available.

    A. Air release, vacuum relief and combination valves are tapped into the top of the pipe and located along high points of the piping route. Valves are typically

    installed with a tapping saddle or by flanged connection to maintain pipeintegrity. Valves should be equipped with isolation ball valves to allow removalif necessary.

    B. Air release valves vent small quantities of air from a pipe during normaloperations. Due to orifice sizes, the typical air release valve cannot handle theventing of large quantities of air during start up or initial filling. Air releasevalves are available in half-inch to six-inch dimensions.

    C. Air and vacuum relief valves vent large quantities of air from the pipe duringinitial filling. The valves will also allow air to enter the pipe during draining

    operations. An air release valve will not vent small pockets of air whichaccumulate over time in a pressurized pipe. Air and vacuum valves are availablein half-inch to 20-inch dimensions.

    D. Combination valves provide the ability to vent large quantities of air during fillingoperations and admit air during draining. This type of valve will also vent smallquantities of air collected during normal operations. Combination valves areavailable in one-inch to eight-inch dimensions.

    E. A vacuum valve is designed to open so as to allow air to enter the pipe duringdraining. This prevents the collapse of the pipeline and also allows for fasterdraining to take place when the lines are decommissioned. Vacuum valves do notvent air from the pipeline.

    F. Additional information on air/vacuum/combination valves can be obtained frommanufacturers catalogues.

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    13.3 Fittings

    Pipeline routings typically require installation of fittings or bends to allow for changes indirection and/or elevations of the pipe. Bends are available in standard offsets of 90

    degrees (1/4 bend), 45 degrees (1/8 bend) 22.5 degrees (1/16 bend) and 11.25 degree s(1/32 bend). Bends are furnished with flanged or mechanical joint ends to allow forconnecting to the pipeline.

    Pipe offsets can also be achieved by deflecting the pipe at the joints. The radius ofcurvature which can be obtained by deflection varies with pipe diameter. Ductile iron

    pipe 12 inches in diameter or less, and having lengths of 20 feet, can be deflected toachieve a radius of approximately 230 feet. PVC pipe 12--inches in diameter or less, andhaving lengths of 20 feet, can be deflected to achieve a radius of approximately 380 to460 feet. For design purposes, a maximum of 75 percent of the available deflectionshould be used. Each pipe material and joint type will have its own deflection

    capabilities. Pipe manufacturers data sheets should be referenced when deflection is planned.

    Section 14Thrust Restraints

    14.1 General

    Pressurized piping systems require the design of restraint systems in order to prevent pipemovement at joints and adjacent pipe lengths. Restraint for belowground piping can be

    provided by either thrust blocks or mechanical systems installed on the pipe joints.Above-grade installations can be restrained by use of fused joints, grooved couplings,and/or restrained mechanical systems. Above-grade piping to be installed on hills,ravines or embankments should also be designed to resist slipping due to elevationchanges. This can be accomplished by means of securing the pipe with pipe blocks,anchors and/or sand bags.

    Pipeline designers should design the restraint system based on the expected maximum pressure of the pipeline plus a factor of safety. Typically for pressurized water systems,the thrust restraints are designed for 1.5 times the maximum working pressure or 150 psi,or whichever is greater.

    14.2 Thrust Blocks

    Thrust blocks are used in buried piping systems and consist of a concrete block designedto transfer the thrust force into the adjoining soil. Thrust block design requiresknowledge of the soil bearing capacity and the thrust forces.

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    Thrust force is calculated with the formula T=PA (SIN /2) where:T = Resultant thrust force (lbs)P = Maximum sustained pressure (test or surge pressure), (psi)A = Pipe cross-sectional area (in)

    = Bend deflection angle (degrees)

    When the resultant thrust force is determined, the bearing area of the thrust block, insquare feet, is calculated by dividing the force (lbs) by the bearing capacity of theadjacent soil (lbs/ft).

    Thrust blocks require proper placement and sizing in order to be effective. Use of precast blocks is not recommended.

    When piping requires vertical bends, the fitting on the upper portion of the pipeline must be restrained by means of a gravity block. The block is designed to offset the upward

    acting (vertical) thrust force component with the weight of the block.

    The upward acting thrust force is calculated with the formula T=PA (SIN) where:T = Thrust force component (y-axis) (lbs)P = Maximum sustained pressure (test or surge pressure), (psi)A = Pipe cross-sectional area (in) = Bend deflection angle (degrees)

    The gravity block volume (Vg, ft 3 ) is calculated by dividing T by the density of the block material (Wm, lbs/ft 3).

    Vg = PA (SIN ) / Wm

    Additional information concerning thrust block design is provided in various pipe designmanuals and manufacturers literature.

    14.3 Slippage

    When above-grade piping is installed along hills, ravines or embankments, movementsuch as slippage can occur due to the weight of the pipe and its contents. This can bealleviated by installing concrete blocks and/or sand bags at the low point of the pipeline.The blocks or sand bags should be sized sufficiently to offset the weight of the pipelineand its contents. Anchor blocks can also be used. They should be sufficiently attached tothe pipe to secure it from slipping. The blocks should be set into the ground so that theload is transferred into the soil. Tie down straps should be of a design to eliminate pointloads on the pipe in order to prevent damage to the pipe.

    14.4 Mechanical Restraints

    It may be appropriate to use mechanical restraint systems in situations where there aredifficulties in installing properly sized thrust blocks. An example is a situation wherethere is insufficient room for the thrust block due to proximity to nearby utility lines.Mechanical restraint systems consist of restraining devices that are placed on each fittingand valve. These systems provide full thrust restraint, provided they are properly

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    sized metering pump connected to the barrel and the pipeline. Allow the pipeline tostabilize at the test pressure before conducting the test.

    E. Tests should be performed for a minimum of four hours. During this period, the test

    pressure should not vary by more than +/- five psi. Test pressure shall be maintained by adding makeup water from the barrel to the pipeline.

    F. The amount of makeup water added to maintain the test pressure should be accuratelymeasured in gallons per hour and should not exceed the calculated allowable testingallowance.

    G. Exposed pipe joints, valves and fittings should be examined for leakage.

    H. If excessive leakage is noted, the pressure should be relieved and the pipe should berepaired or replaced. The hydrostatic test should be repeated until satisfactory results

    are obtained.

    I. Upon completion of the hydrostatic test, the pipeline can be placed directly intoservice. Draining of the pipeline is not required.

    J. Allowable leakage for freshwater pipelines is determined by the followingformula:

    Q = (L D P)/148,000, where Q = Quantity of makeup water, (gallons per hour)

    L = length of pipe tested, (feet) D

    = nominal diameter of the pipe, (inches)P = average test pressure during the hydrostatic test, (pounds per squareinch, gauge)

    K. In order to minimize potential environmental releases, pipelines carrying flowback or produced water, or any water that is not fresh water, should have zero leakage. Inorder to insure against leakage, these pipes should be constructed using fuse-welded


    Section 16Operations and Maintenance

    16.1 General

    Properly installed pipe should be relatively maintenance free. However, breaks in the pipeline can result in the loss of water and washout of the area around the pipelinefailure. In order to minimize the volume of water released due to breaks, isolation valves

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    should be installed during the construction and regularly operated to ensure they close properly.

    As-built drawings of buried pipelines, showing the pipeline location, and valve and fitting

    locations with ties to permanent structures should be prepared during construction andmaintained. These should also provide details on pipe materials, diameter, depth of bury,detailed joint/coupling information with fusion information, if applicable, and otheruseful information to be used in case of a break or to facilitate maintenance.

    Repair materials should be readily available and should include repair clamps, sections of pipe of various diameters and materials installed.

    A list of approved local utility contractors should be maintained in order to facilitate aquick response in the event of breaks or other emergencies. Also, a contact list of localregulatory agencies and permit officials should be maintained. Most jurisdictions will

    allow for emergency excavation to allow for repairs to broken pipelines. However,certain pre-approved permit conditions may apply.

    If above ground pipelines are to be inactive for a prolonged period of time, they should be drained or pigged to prevent freezing.

    16.2 Monitoring of Pipeline

    Temporary lines carrying non-fresh water should be continually monitored duringoperation.

    Pipeline should be inspected at intervals decided by the operators based on their risk-management strategies.

    Valves, air releases and joints should be thoroughly inspected for leaks or signs offailure.

    Pipeline condition should be continually recorded to document inspection.o Pressure should be recorded to ensure that pipeline is running to engineered

    specificationso Time of inspection should be recorded for individual accountability, as well as

    documentation in the event of a failure.o Condition of drain valves, fittings and air releases should be noted.o Where necessary, torque specifications should be recorded for any bolted

    connections.o Documentation should be signed by inspector and inspectors supervisor.

    Temporary lines carrying fresh water should be continually monitored during operation.

    Pipelines should be inspected at intervals decided by the operators based on their risk-management strategies.

    Valves, air releases and joints should be inspected for leaks or signs of failure. Signs of failure should be conveyed to supervisors as soon as they are noticed.

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    Section 17Deactivation of Pipeline

    17.1 Deactivation

    When it is determined that the pipeline is no longer needed for current or potential futureuses, it should be deactivated and, if possible, removed in its entirety. In order to ensurethat proper procedures are incorporated, meetings with relevant federal, state and localofficials should be held to discuss the deactivation program, and to gain insight into anyspecial procedures that these agencies may require. Permits issued for the originalinstallation should be reviewed to ensure compliance with any special requirements.Many permits require a close-out submittal be prepared and forwarded to the appropriateagency.

    Prior to deactivating a pipeline, all water remaining in the pipeline should be removed.

    The two most common methods for removing water from the pipeline are described below:

    A. Draining Prior to draining, samples of the water should be taken and analyzed to

    determine water quality. If the water does not meet regulatory parameters for "fresh," the water should

    be either drained to a lined impoundment or tank for further treatment, or pumped to a truck for transport and treatment or disposal.

    Water that meets regulatory requirements for fresh water can be slowlydischarged to areas where it can percolate into the ground. If drainage catch-

    basins or sanitary sewers are located in the area, they can also be utilized fordraining water. Prior to utilizing basins or sewers, discussions with localauthorities should be held to verify that they will allow use of the drains orsewers for release of water from the pipeline.

    If pipelines are to be discharged to the soils, sedimentation barriers consistingof stone rip-rap, other energy dissipaters, or other agency permitted measuresshould be installed to minimize possible erosion due to high flows. Flowsshould be regulated by throttling a valve.

    B. Pig Launching or "Pigging" Pigging involves inserting a device called a pig into a pipeline to push the

    water in the pipeline to an impoundment or storage tank. When pigging a pipeline, an adequately-sized air compressor capable of

    supplying the necessary flow rate should be used. The operating pressurecannot exceed the manufactures pressure rating of the pipe.

    The pig should be adequately sized for the inside diameter of the pipe. The proper launcher and receiver devices need to be installed prior to


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    All drains and vents should be closed prior to pigging. Proper safety precautions should be followed when operating a

    pressurized pipe. The operator should adequately secure the end of the pipe, typically at an

    impoundment or tank that is receiving the pig.

    During deactivation of above-ground HDPE pipeline, precautions should include placing plastic underneath the pipeline during the cutting of the joints to avoid shavings being lefton the ground. Materials should be transported to a safe location for possible reuse infuture projects.

    All disturbed areas from pipeline deactivation should be restored to pre-constructionconditions. If pipelines were buried under roads, shoulders or streams, removal mayrequire excavation and restoration of surface areas. If possible, the pipelines should bedrained at low points and abandoned in place. Abandoned pipelines should be capped

    and plugged to prevent migration of surrounding soils into the pipeline. Depending uponthe local regulations, abandoned pipelines may need to be filled with flowable fillmaterial. Filling the pipelines prevents the possible collapse of the abandoned pipe andalso eliminates future reuse of the piping system.

    Records of the pipeline deactivation should be maintained. The records should includeinformation about the location of removed pipe, removal methodology, water qualitydata, and pre- and post- site photographs.