R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM · PDF fileLECTURER, DEPARTMENT...

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  • R.KAVITHA,M.PHARM,LECTURER,DEPARTMENTOFPHARMACEUTICS,

    SRMCOLLEGEOFPHARMACY,SRMUNIVERSITY,KATTANKULATHUR.

  • SizeofBacteriaAveragebacteria0.5 2.0umindiam.

    RBCis7.5umindiam.SurfaceArea~12um^2Volumeis~4umSurfaceAreatoVolumeis3:1TypicalEukaryoteCellSA/Volis0.3:1FoodentersthroughSA,quicklyreachesallpartsofbacteriaEukaroytesneedstructures&organelles

  • ShapesofBacteriaCoccus

    Chain=StreptoccusCluster=Staphylococcus

    BacillusChain=Streptobacillus

    CoccobacillusVibrio=curvedSpirillumSpirocheteSquareStar

  • BacterialStructuresFlagellaPiliCapsulePlasmaMembraneCytoplasmCellWallLipopolysaccharidesTeichoicAcidsInclusionsSpores

  • FlagellaMotilitymovementSwarmingoccurswithsomebacteria

    SpreadacrossPetriDishProteusspeciesmostevident

    ArrangementbasisforclassificationMonotrichous;1flagellaLophotrichous;tuftatoneendAmphitrichous;bothendsPeritrichous;allaroundbacteria

    ObservePictureinMicroLab.

  • Mono- or Lophotrichorus

  • PiliShortproteinappendages

    smallerthanflagellaAdherebacteriatosurfaces

    E.colihasnumeroustypesK88,K99,F41,etc.

    AntibodiestowillblockadheranceFpilus;usedinconjugation

    ExchangeofgeneticinformationFlotation;increaseboyancy

    Pellicle(scumonwater)Moreoxygenonsurface

  • FPilusforConjugation

  • CapsuleorSlimeLayerGlycocalyx PolysaccharideonexternalsurfaceAdherebacteriatosurface

    S.mutansandenamelofteethPreventsPhagocytosis

    Complementcantpenetratesugars

  • Cytoplasm80%Water{20%SaltsProteins)

    OsmoticShockimportantDNAiscircular,Haploid

    Advantagesof1NDNAover2NDNAMoreefficient;growsquickerMutationsallowadaptationtoenvironmentquicker

    Plasmids;extracircularDNAAntibioticResistance

    Noorganelles(Mitochondria,Golgi,etc.)

  • CellMembraneBilayerPhospholipidWatercanpenetrateFlexibleNotstrong,ruptureseasily

    OsmoticPressurecreatedbycytoplasm

  • CellWallPeptidoglycanPolymer(aminoacids+sugars)UniquetobacteriaSugars;NAG&NAM

    NacetylglucosamineNacetymuramicacid

    DformofAminoacidsusednotLformHardtobreakdownDform

    AminoacidscrosslinkNAG&NAM

  • CellWallSummaryDetermineshapeofbacteriaStrengthpreventsosmoticrupture2040%ofbacteriaUniquetobacteriaSomeantibioticseffectdirectly

    Penicillin

  • VideoCliponCellWall

  • TeichoicAcidsGram+onlyGlycerol,Phosphates,&RibitolAttachmentforPhages

  • Lipopolysaccharide(LPS)EndotoxinorPyrogen

    FevercausingToxinnomenclature

    Endo partofbacteriaExo excretedintoenvironment

    StructureLipidAPolysaccharide

    OAntigenofE.coli,Salmonella

    G bacteriaonlyAlcohol/Acetoneremoves

  • LPS(contd)Functions

    Toxic;killsmice,pigs,humansG septicemia;deathduetoLPS

    Pyrogen;causesfeverDPTvaccinationalwayscausesfevers

    Adjuvant;stimulatesimmunityHeatResistant;hardtoremoveDetection(alltopical&IVproducts)

    Rabbits(measurefever)Horseshoecrab(AmoebocytesLyseinpresenceofLPS)

  • LPS(contd.)AppearanceofColonies

    Mucoid=Smooth(lotsofLPSorcapsule)Dry=Rough(littleLPSorcapsule)

    OAntigenofSalmonellaandE.coli2,000differentOAgsofSalmonella100sdifferentOAgsofE.coli

    E.coliO157

    OAgsdifferinSugars,notLipidA

  • EndosporesResistantstructure

    Heat,irradiation,coldBoiling>1hrstillviable

    TakestimeandenergytomakesporesLocationimportantinclassification

    Central,Subterminal,TerminalBacillusstearothermophilusspores

    Usedforqualitycontrolofheatsterilizationequipment

    Bacillusanthracis sporesUsedinbiologicalwarfare

  • G+vs.GG+

    ThickercellwallTeichoicAcids

    GEndotoxin LPS

    WhicharemoresensitivetoPenicllin?Alcohol/Acetoneaffectswhichmore?

    CHAPTER-IIStructure of BacteriaSize of BacteriaShapes of BacteriaSlide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Bacterial StructuresFlagellaSlide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13PiliF-Pilus for ConjugationCapsule or Slime LayerCytoplasmCell MembraneSlide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Cell Wall Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Slide Number 26Slide Number 27Slide Number 28Cell Wall SummaryVideo Clip on Cell WallTeichoic AcidsSlide Number 32Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)Slide Number 34Slide Number 35LPS (contd)LPS (contd.)EndosporesSlide Number 39Slide Number 40G+ vs. G-