RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 COLIN MENZIES

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Transcript of RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 COLIN MENZIES

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Slide 2 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Slide 3 COLIN MENZIES Slide 4 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Introduction What do we know about leadership and policing?What do we know about leadership and policing? Context of contemporary policing in ScotlandContext of contemporary policing in Scotland Recent research findingsRecent research findings ConclusionsConclusions Home Office (2001) Slide 5 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 What do we know about Leadership & Policing? Trait Theories, Great Man Approach First Academic Police Study (Banton, 1964) 1970s Contingency Theories Fiedler, Hersey & Blanchard Action-Centred Leadership (Adair, 1979) Blake & Mouton, Briggs-Myers 1980s new leadership Visionary, Charismatic, Transformational 1990s Emotional intelligence, situational leadership & principle based approaches Recent Research (Dobby et al 2003, Menzies, 2004) Slide 6 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Criticism Criticism Scarman (1981) New Social Movements (1980s present) ACPO police culture must shift from conservative, cautious militaristic hierarchy to a people-centred culture (1993) Macpherson - failure of leadership by senior officers (1999) Home Office challenge facing public sector leaders is unprecedented and modernisation of leadership, training and professionalism will be required at all levels within the police service (2001) PLDB/NPLC/NPIA Adlam, R. & Villiers, P. (2003) Slide 7 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Contingency still counts Research and experience suggests that effectiveness of leadership is determined by being able to recognise the situation before applying the most appropriate style Slide 8 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 TEAM TASK Can a group member explain what the Police Leadership Model is, why we have one and what we use it for? Slide 9 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Scottish Executive relationshipScottish Executive relationship Rapid changeRapid change Role of policeRole of police Complexity of demand, omni-competenceComplexity of demand, omni-competence National Intelligence Model & Problem Solving PolicingNational Intelligence Model & Problem Solving Policing Public Sector Reform & Community PlanningPublic Sector Reform & Community Planning Partnership and collaborationPartnership and collaboration Criminal Justice ReformCriminal Justice Reform Profile of CrimeProfile of Crime The Context of Policing in Scotland Slide 10 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Perceived Success Factors of Effective Police Leaders VisionVision Two-Way CommunicationTwo-Way Communication Visibility & AccessibilityVisibility & Accessibility Transparency of Decision MakingTransparency of Decision Making Delivery & Performance ManagementDelivery & Performance Management EmpathyEmpathy Home Office (2001) Slide 11 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 .significant change in our approach to leading others the hallmarks of which will be a more collaborative and inter- dependant approach to resolving challenges ACPOS (Fit for the 21 st Century, 2003) Slide 12 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Professional, managerial and organisational leadership must become the norm and not the exception..leadership must be strong, visible and dynamic Ton McCabe, Transforming Public Services (2006) Slide 13 What Does Police Leadership in Scotland Look Like? Slide 14 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Research Objectives To evaluate which aspects of transformational leadership are being provided by close police leaders in Scotland To identify the nature and extent of the relationship between identified aspects of transformational leadership and self- reported psychological outcomes To identify variation in the extent of transformational leadership behaviour between ranks To identify variation in the extent of transformational leadership behaviour as a result of gender and locality To make recommendations regarding the future training of police leaders in Scotland based on the findings Slide 15 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 What some Scottish Officers said about their leaders What some Scottish Officers said about their leaders Supervisor is very nice but cannot cope under pressure. Does not have global view of way forward, lives for today and delegates on that basis My manager has a PHD in hindsight and a masters in bullying. He has created an atmosphere of fear in which people are afraid to go to his meetings My manager is almost invisible within the organisation and community, he appears to avoid conflict at all cost Listens with empathy but does nothing to actively support We all experience a lack of motivational leadership Slide 16 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Key Findings Police leaders in Scotland, at all ranks, are rated by immediate subordinates as behaving least effectively in Encouraging & Facilitating Change, Networking & Achieving and Building Shared Vision. In these area they are also reported as being significantly less effective than leaders in other public sector areas Such behaviours are highly relevant in the context of contemporary policing in Scotland 20% of all police leaders score very poorly on a transformational scale Police leaders in Scotland are rated as behaving most effectively in Being Accessible and Being Decisive Slide 17 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Key Findings A statistically significant variation in transformational behaviour is found between ranks with Sergeants in particular rated lower in a number of key areas Senior managers most ineffective at Inspiring Others or Showing Genuine Concern No significant variation is found as a result of gender or urban/rural locality Some variation between Forces - scale Almost 40% of respondents across all ranks report that leaders behave in a way that fails to raise motivation, reduce stress, increase commitment or enable achievement beyond expectations Slide 18 Key Findings It can reliably be assumed from the data that leaders who build a shared vision and show genuine concern will be seen as behaving in a way that; Has a positive effect on job commitment Has a positive effect on self-confidence Raises sense of fulfilment Reduces job related stress Increases job satisfaction Increases self esteem Slide 19 Key Findings The strength and nature of the correlations enables the assumption to be confidently made that police leaders who do not show genuine concern or build shared vision are highly unlikely to achieve any positive psychological impact on their direct reports Slide 20 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 effective leadership takes many guises.a major factor in the success of operational policing was the ability of unit commanders to know when to direct and delegate and when to play a coach/mentoring role (HMIC BCU Thematic Inspection, 2002) Slide 21 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 The guiding principle of policing in Scotland is one of intelligence-led, highly collaborative problem solving Delivery of policing services increasingly requires greater adaptability to change and collaboration The absence of any definitive doctrine or approach to leadership has exposed the service to widespread criticism A range of leadership styles are employed by the most successful leaders Conclusions Slide 22 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Research has shown that Transformational Leadership behaviours are valued by police officers Structured adoption of Transformational Leadership as part of a leadership framework has improved motivation, morale and performance in public and private sector areas Transformational leadership is complementary to a transactional command and control style Research suggests that police leaders at all ranks, most significantly near the front line, may be ill equipped to cope with the demands of leadership in contemporary policing There is little evidence of ongoing research into police leadership in Scotland Slide 23 RGU LEADERSHIP EVENT - 20 APRIL 2007 Thank You! colin.menzies@grampian.pnn.police.uk