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Review of Literature

14

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Heteroptera is a highly diverse insect taxon with approximately 42,300 described

species worldwide, separated into 7 infraorders and 89 families (Henry, 2009). Their

body size ranges from less than 1 mm to 10 cm. Heteropterans live in virtually all

terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from Antarctic birds nests to rainforest canopies, from

the open surface of the ocean to torrential and stagnant rivers, from ephemeral rain pools

and phytotelmata to large lakes, and in aphotic caves and man-made buildings. They feed

on a variety of resources (e.g., haemolymph of insects, blood of endotherms, algae, fungi,

mosses, ferns, monocotyledons and dicotyledons). Long evolutionary history and

apparent adaptability of the Heteroptera have resulted in great biological and structural

diversity (Schuh and Slater, 1995).

A. Chromosomal complement and meiosis in Heteroptera

a. International level

Heteroptera is a diversified group of insects displaying unique cytogenetic

characters such as holokinetic chromosomes, presence of microchromosomes in some

families, multiple sex chromosome systems and inverted meiosis for sex chromosomes.

The pioneer investigator of true bug cytogenetics is Henking (1891) who deserves the

credit for the discovery of a relationship between chromosomes and sex determination in

the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Pyrrhocoridae). The cytogenetic information on

Heteroptera continued with the works of Montgomery (1901a, b, 1904, 1906), Wilson

(1905a, b, c, 1906, 1907a, b, c, 1909a, b, c, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1932), Foot and

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15

Strobell (1907, 1912, 1914), Payne (1909, 1910, 1912), Browne (1916), Bowen (1922a,

b), Nishimura (1927) and Chickering (1927a, b, 1932). Holokinetic nature of

heteropteran chromosomes has been described and discussed on the basis of several

experiments by Schrader (1932, 1935, 1939, 1940a, b, 1941a, b, 1945a, b, 1946a, b,

1947, 1960a, b), Hughes-Schrader (1940, 1942, 1948, 1955), Schrader and Hughes-

Schrader (1956, 1958) and Hughes-Schrader and Schrader (1956, 1957, 1961).

Thereafter, a good deal of information regarding chromosome number, sex mechanism

and meiosis has been provided by Toshioka (1934, 1935, 1936, 1937), Geitler (1937,

1938, 1939a, b), Pfaler-Collander (1937, 1941), McClung (1939), Ekblom (1941),

Troedsson (1944), Yosida (1944, 1946, 1947, 1950, 1956), Xavier and Da (1945), Oksala

(1947), White (1948), Heizer (1950, 1951), Battaglia and Boyes (1955), Miyamoto

(1957), Leston (1957, 1958), Lewis and Scudder (1958), Southwood and Leston (1959),

Ueshima (1963, 1966, 1979), Mikolajski (1964, 1965, 1967 a, b, 1968, 1970, 1971),

Takenouchi and Muramoto (1964, 1967, 1968, 1969 1970a, b, 1971a, b, 1972a, b, 1973),

Muramoto (1973 a, b, c, d, 1974, 1975a, b, c, 1976, 1977, 1978a, b, 1979, 1981, 1982,

1985), Akingohungbe (1974), Kuznetsova and Petropavlovskaya (1976), Reddi and Chari

(1976, 1978), Ueshima and Ashlock (1980), Sands (1982a, b), Nuamah (1982), Newman

and Cheng (1983), Nokkala and Nokkala (1983, 1984, 1997, 1999, 2004), Camacho et al.

(1985), Papeschi and Bidau (1985) and Nokkala (1985, 1986). Significant cytological

data regarding the chromosome number, meiotic behavior of chromosomes and sex

chromosome systems in heteropteran species has been contributed by Papeschi (1988,

1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996), Papeschi and Mola (1990a, b), Grozeva and Kuznetsova

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16

(1990, 1993), Panzera et al. (1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000), Perez et al. (1992,

1997, 2000, 2004), Mola and Papeschi (1993), Grozeva (1995a, b, 1997), Rebagliati et al.

(1998, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005), Bressa et al. (1998, 1999, 2001, 2002a, b, 2003, 2005,

2008), Tartarotti and Azeredo-Oliveira (1999a, b), Zhang and Zheng (1999), Suja et al.

(2000), Jacobs and Liebenberg (2001), Grozeva and Nokkala (2002), Jacobs and

Groenveld (2002), Papeschi and Bressa (2002, 2004, 2006), Papeschi et al. (2003),

Grozeva and Nokkala (2002), Severi-Aguiar and Azeredo-Oliveira (2003, 2005),

Nokkala et al. (2003, 2004, 2006a, b), Jacobs (2004), Grasiela et al. (2004), Ituarte and

Papeschi (2004), Kerzhner et al. (2004), Grozeva et al. (2005, 2008), Lanzone and Souza

(2006a, b), Bressa and Papeschi (2007), Kuznetsova et al. (2007), Poggio et al. (2007),

Souza et al. (2007a, b, c, 2008a, b, 2009), Angus et al. (2008), Bardella et al. (2008),

Costa et al. (2008), Gomez-Palacio et al. (2008), Kuznetsova and Grozeva (2008), Pires

(2008), Toscani et al. (2008), Castanhole et al. (2008, 2010), Castanhole (2009), Viera et

al. (2009), Souza and Itoyama (2010), Kaur and Semahagn (2010a) and Rebagliati and

Mola (2010a, b).

b. National level

Significant cytogenetic work pertaining to diploid chromosome complement and

course of meiosis has been done on Indian Heteroptera. Manna (1950, 1951, 1956, 1957,

1958, 1962, 1982, 1983, 1984) is the pioneer and major researcher in Indian Heteroptera

cytogenetics. The work was continued by his associates and other workers and more and

more Indian species were investigated for chromosome number, sex mechanism and

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17

meiotic behavior by Das Gupta (1950), Ray-Chaudhuri and Manna (1952, 1955, 1956),

Bawa (1953), Rao (1954, 1955, 1958), Sharma and Parshad (1955a, b), Dutt (1955,

1957), Das (1956, 1958), Parshad (1956, 1957a, b, c, d, 1958), Sharma et al. (1957),

Srivastava (1957, 1965), Banerjee (1958, 1959), Bagga (1959), Ray-Chaudhuri and

Banerjee (1959), Jande (1959a, b, c, 1960a, b, c), Rajasekharasetty (1963), Bhattacharya

and Halder (1978), Malipatil (1979), Manna and Deb Mallick (1980, 1981a, b, 1982,

1983, 1984), Barik et al. (1981), Manna and Dey (1981), Mittal and Joseph (1981, 1982,

1984), Manna et al. (1985), Dey and Wangdi (1985, 1988, 1990), Satapathy and Patnaik

(1988, 1989, 1991) and Satapathy et al. (1990). Then after a gap of about 15 years,

heteropteran cytogenetics was extended further by Kaur et al. (2006, 2009, 2010), Suman

(2010), Kaur and Suman (2009), Kaur and Semahagn (2010b) and Kerisew (2011).

B. Chromosome complement and meiosis in Coreidae

Coreidae is divided into 4 subfamilies: Coreinae, Pseudophloeinae,

Agriopocorinae and Meropachydinae (Schuh and Slater, 1995). Cytogenetic data for only

2 subfamilies i.e. Coreinae and Pseudophloeinae is available.

a. Coreinae

Coreinae is divided into 31 tribes but cytological data is available for 18 tribes

only.

1) Coreini

International level

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Tribe Coreini is the most widely studied tribe of the subfamily Coreinae. A total

of twenty one taxa have been studied till date. The most common complement is 2n=22

shown by eight out of twenty one. Initial cytogenetic studies pertaining to the course of

meiosis in Coreini were done by Montgomery (1901a, 1904, 1906), Wilson (1905a, b, c,

1906, 1907a, b, c, 1909a, b, c, 1911), Schachow (1932), Geitler (1939b), Yosida (1944)

and Xavier (1945). Nokkala (1986) explained the mechanisms behind the regular

segregation of the m-chromosomes in Coreus marginatus. Papeschi and Mola (1990a)

described the behavior of univalents in desynaptic individuals of Acanonicus hahni.

Souza et al. (2007a) investigated cytogenetical aspects of testicular cells in Sphictyrtus

fasciatus, Anasa bellator and Zicca annulata. Souza et al. (2009) studied meiosis,

spermatogenesis and nucleolar behavior in the seminiferous tubules of Hypselonotus

fulvus and Catorintha guttula.

National level

No cytogenetic data is available.

2) Mictini

International level

Eleven species of Mictini have been studied so far. Diploid number ranges from

15 to 26. Sands (1982a) gave detailed information on male meiosis in five Malaysian

species viz., Anoplocnemis phasiana, Ochrochira rubrotincta, Derepteryx chinai, Mictis

gallina and Mictis longicornis. Takenouchi and Muramoto (1970b) studied diploid

chromosome complement and course of meiosis in Molipteryx fuliginosa.

National level

Review of Literature

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Indian works on Mictini include that of Manna (1951), Parshad (1957a, d), Jande

(1959b) and Dey and Wangdi (1985, 1990). Manna (1951) and Parshad (1957d)

described the course of meiosis in Elasmomia granulipes and Ochrochira albiditarsis.

Jande (1959b) and Dey and Wangdi (1985) reported diploid chromosome number and sex

mechanism in Ochrochira sp. and Derepteryx hardwicki.

3) Gonocerini

International level

Sixteen species have been studied so far. The diploid number ranges from 17 to

22. Earlier studies include those of Schachow (1932), Toshioka (1935) and Xavier (1945)

on Cletus hoplomachus, Cletus rusticus, Cletus trigonus, Gonocerus acuteangulatus and

Gonocerus juniperi var. triquetricornis. Sands (1982a) provided detailed information on

male meiosis of two Malaysian species viz., Cletus trigonus and Cletus punctiger. Kaur

and Semahagn (2010a) and Yang et al. (2012) described male meiosis in Cletus

pu