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    INDEX

    Sl. No. Table of contents Page No.

    1 TITLE OF THE PROJECT 4

    2 INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT 6

    3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 7-8

    4 PROJECT CATEGORY AND PLATFORM 9

    5 TOOLS 10

    6 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 11

    7 PROJECT DETAIL AND CODING 12-34

    8DATA FLOW DIAGRAM AND MODULEDISCRIPTION

    35-63

    9 VERIFICATION & VALIDATION 64

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    10 TESTING 65-68

    11 BIBLIOGRAPHY 69

    Introduction of the project

    Introduction

    This project is basically based on the day to day activity of a

    Hotel Operations, which controls the information like:-

    GUEST DETAIL

    ROOM STATUS

    In this Hotel Reservation Sysetem project some feature are facilitated. This

    provides some sorts of help to the users in day to day activity i.e.

    Room Booking.

    Modification of Guest Detail

    View the Status of Room

    Delete the Room Booking

    Objective

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    This is Hotel Reservation System project. This project has contained 4 modules and

    Hotel frequently used 4 tasks in day to day activity

    1. Room Booking

    2. Modification in Guest Detail

    3. View Room Status

    4. Delete the Booking

    Room Booking Module facilitates the booking of any room available In Hotel.

    Modification in Guest Detail is facilitates the user to modify the detail of guest and

    booking information.

    View room status module facilitates the user to check the availability of room and

    booking detail of guest stayed in hotel.

    Delete the booking Module facilitates the user to delete the booking of any booked

    room.

    This project is needed as it helps the user in doing his day-to-day work very easily.

    4

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    Main objective of the Proposed System

    After studying the existing process of the Hotel we identify the need to develop a new

    system. Because of the manual operation of the data in day to day activity leads delay in the

    process.

    Computerization helps to give high Accuracy of data. Computer provides

    data security and data transfer. Redundancy of data can be avoided. Reports of any type can

    generate at any time

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    Project Category and Platform

    This program is a basic console based program ,in which static data base, stack and

    Queue LIFO,FIFO are used.

    It is a function based basic program.

    Platform

    Microsoft Windows 9X/Me/XP

    6

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    Tools

    I have used Turbo C as a basic programming language.The C programming language is

    a popular and widely used programming language for creating computer programs.C is a

    general purpose structured programming language that is powerful, efficient and

    compact. It was developed at AT &Ts Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972. It was designed

    and written by Dennis Ritchie. C was an offspring of the Basic Cambridge

    Programming Language (BCPL) called B.

    Some Features of C/C++ are:-

    1. It is reliable , simple and easy to use.

    2. Programs in C are efficient and fast.This is due to variety of data types and powerful

    operators.

    3. There are only 32 keywords and its strength lies in its built-in functions.

    4. C helps in developing structured programs.

    5. C is highly suitable for recursive programming.

    6. It is also suitable for graphics programming.

    7. C is highly portable.

    8. It is highly suitable for writing both system software and business packages.

    9. We can add our own functions to the library. Therefore, important feature of C is its

    ability to extend itself.

    10. C is format free language.No line numbers are needed.need not place statements on a

    specified location on a line.

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    11. Standard libraries for I\O, string manipulation, Arithmetic operations etc.

    12. Pointer implementation is available

    13. Bitwise manipulation is possible.

    14.C stands between the assembly languages and the High Level Languages.C has all the

    advantages of assembly language and it has the significant features of modern HLLs

    (High Level Languages).thats why it is often called a Middle Level Language.

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    Hardware Requirement Specification:-

    Micro Processors : PentiumII Processors

    Processing Speed : 550MHz

    Random Access Memory (RAM) : 128 MB

    Secondary Storage : 20 GB of Hard Disk

    CD ROM : 52X CD-ROM

    Floppy Disk : 1.44MB

    File System : 32bit

    Virtual Memory : 32MB

    Operating System : Windows 9x/Me/XP

    Project Detail

    This Project contains 6 segments

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    Welcome Page

    Options Page

    Data Entry Page (Booking)

    View Page

    Detail Modification Page

    Deletion Page

    Welcome page displays the information regarding Project and Developer.

    Option Page displays the list of function and task provided in the Project.

    Data Entry page displays the list of mandatory information required for the Room

    Booking.

    View Page displays the status of Room and Guest Details.

    Modification page displays the option for change in details.

    Deletion Page displays the option to vacate the rooms

    . CODING

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    /

    Language: C\C++

    Category: Database\Files

    Description: Hotel Reservation

    */

    #include

    #include

    #include

    #include

    #define size 51

    void mainm(void);

    void entry(void);

    void modify(void);

    void delet(void);

    void view(void);

    // Structure

    struct hoteldata

    {

    char name[size][30], nic[size][20],rdate[size][12],cdate[size][12];

    };

    struct hoteldata guest;

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    struct hoteldata1

    {

    char name[size][30], nic[size][20],rdate[size][12],cdate[size][12];

    };

    struct hoteldata1 guest1;

    // Initializations

    int li,lp,sr[size];int dr[size];int rno;int i;int e;

    char rc,ch,choice,echoice,rchoice,temp[80],vchoice,mf,ar;

    // Main Fuction

    void main(void)

    {

    clrscr();

    sr[0]=1;dr[0]=1; // THE MAIN LOGIC !!

    for(li=10;li

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    for(li=70;li>=10;li--)

    {

    gotoxy(li,22);

    delay(30);

    printf("\\");

    }

    for(lp=16;lp=16;lp--)

    {

    gotoxy(70,lp);

    delay(100);

    printf("\\");

    }

    gotoxy(16,17);

    textcolor(BLINK + MAGENTA);

    cprintf("Welcome To The ANUPAMA's Hotel Reservation System");

    gotoxy(12,20);

    cprintf("Designed and Coded By ANUPAMA SINGH M Sc. Comp Sc.(2009-11)");

    gotoxy(24,28);

    textcolor(LIGHTGREEN);

    cprintf("---*$ CODED BY $*---");

    gotoxy(24,31);

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    textcolor(2);

    cprintf("ANUPAMA SINGH");

    gotoxy(24,34);

    textcolor(3);

    cprintf("ROLL NO. 311297");

    textcolor(4);

    gotoxy(24,37);

    cprintf("M Sc. Computer Science");

    textcolor(5);

    gotoxy(24,40);

    textcolor(6);

    cprintf("MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK (HARYANA)");

    gotoxy(40,48);

    textcolor(BLUE);

    cprintf("Press Any Key To ..........Continue");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }// Main Fuction End

    //Main Menu Function

    void mainm(void)

    {

    clrscr();

    for(li=30;li

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    printf("*");

    }

    for(li=50;li>=30;li--)

    {

    gotoxy(li,30);

    delay(30);

    printf("*");

    }

    for(lp=15;lp=15;lp--)

    {

    gotoxy(50,lp);

    delay(100);

    printf("|");

    }

    gotoxy(15,10);

    textcolor(LIGHTGRAY);

    cprintf("Press the corresponding Keys for the desired action");

    gotoxy(33,16);

    textcolor(BROWN);

    cprintf("R: Reservation");

    gotoxy(33,19);

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    textcolor(LIGHTMAGENTA);

    cprintf("V: Room Status");

    gotoxy(33,22);

    textcolor(LIGHTBLUE);

    cprintf("M: Modification");

    gotoxy(33,25);

    textcolor(LIGHTRED);

    cprintf("D: Deletion");

    gotoxy(33,28);

    textcolor(GREEN);

    cprintf("Q: Quit");

    textcolor(WHITE);

    choice=getch();

    switch(choice)

    {// Choice Switch Begin

    case 'R':

    entry();

    case 'V':

    view();

    case 'M':

    modify();

    case 'D':

    delet();

    case 'Q':

    exit(0);

    default:

    {//Choice Default

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    gotoxy(33,40);

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//Choice Default End

    } //Choice Switch End

    } //Main Menu Function End

    // Data Entry Function

    void entry(void)

    {//Data Entry Function Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("Do You Want To reserve A Room? (Y/N)\n");

    echoice=getch();

    switch(echoice) // Echoice Switch Begin

    {

    case 'Y':

    { // E-Choice Case Y Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter S for Single Room or D for Double Room\n\n");

    rchoice=getch();

    switch(rchoice) // Rchoice Switch Begin

    {

    case 'S': // Rchoice

    {// R-Choice Case S Begin

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    for(i=1;i

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    }//AR Default End

    }// AR Switch End

    }// Single Room IF End

    }// Rchoice Case S End

    case 'D':

    { //Rchoice Case D Begin

    for(i=1;i

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    entry();

    case 'N':

    mainm();

    default:

    {//AR Default Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//AR Default End

    }// AR Switch End

    }// Double Room IF End

    }// Rchoice Case D End

    default: // Rchoice Default

    {//Rchoice Default Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//Rchoice default end

    }//Rchoice End

    }//Echoice Case Y End

    case 'N':

    {// Echoice Case N Begin

    mainm();

    }//Echoice Case N End

    default: //Echoice Default

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

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    mainm();

    } // Echoice Default End

    } //Data Entry Function End

    // Data View Fucntion

    void view(void)

    {// Data View Function Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("Press S for Sequential Display of the room status \

    \n\nPress R for Manual Check Of Room Status\n\n");

    vchoice=getch();

    switch(vchoice)

    {//Vchoice Switch Begin

    case 'S':

    {//Vchoice Case S Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("R.No.\tName\t\tNIC Number\tCheck In\tCheck Out\n");

    for(i=1;i

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    printf("\n\n\nPress Any Key For Double Room Status\n\n");

    getch();

    clrscr();

    printf("R.No.\tName\t\tNIC Number\tCheck In\tCheck Out\n");

    for(i=1;i

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    printf("\n\nIllegal Room Number");

    getch();

    mainm();

    } //IF Condition End

    else

    { // Limit Else Falsified Begin

    if(sr[rno]==1)

    {//sr==1 if Begin

    printf("\n\nSingle Room No %d Is Reserved",rno);

    printf("\n\nOccupant's Name : %s \n\nOccupant's NIC Number : %s \ \n\nCheck In Date :

    %s\n\nCheck Out Date : %s \n\n", \

    guest.name[rno],guest.nic[rno],guest.rdate[rno],guest.cdate[rno]);

    }//sr==1 if End

    else

    {// sr else begin

    printf("\n\nSingle Room No %d is Vacant",rno);

    getch();

    }//sr else end

    if(dr[rno]==1)

    {//dr==1 if Begin

    printf("\n\nDouble Room No %d Is Reserved",rno);

    printf("\nOccupant's Name : %s \n\nOccupant's NIC Number : \%s \n\nCheck In Date :

    %s\n\nCheck Out Date : %s \n\n", \

    guest1.name[rno],guest1.nic[rno],guest1.rdate[rno], \

    guest1.cdate[rno]);

    printf("\n\nPress Any Key To Return To The Main Menu");

    getch();

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    mainm();

    }//dr==1 if End

    else

    {// dr else begin

    printf("\n\nDouble Room No %d is Vacant",rno);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//dr else end

    }//Vchoice Case R End

    }// Falsified Limit End

    default:

    {

    //Vchoice Default Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

    mainm();

    } // Vchoice Default End

    } // Vchoice Switch End

    } // Data View Function End

    //Modify Function

    void modify(void)

    {// Modify Function Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("\t\t\t\tData Modification\n\n\n\n\n\n");

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    printf("Enter The Room Number To Be Modified\n");

    gets(temp);

    rno=atoi(temp);

    // Room Number Limit Check

    if(rno51)

    {//IF Condition Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Room Number");

    getch();

    mainm();

    } //IF Condition End

    else

    { // Limit Else Falsified Begin

    printf("Enter S For Single Room / D For Double Room\n");

    rc=getch();

    switch(rc)

    {//rc Switch Begin

    case 'S':

    {//rc Case S Begin

    if(sr[rno]==1)

    {//sr==1 if Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("\n\nSingle Room No %d Is Reserved",rno);

    printf("\n\nOccupant's Name : %s \n\nOccupant's NIC Number : \

    %s \n\nCheck In Date : %s\n\nCheck Out Date : %s \n\n", \

    guest.name[rno],guest.nic[rno],guest.rdate[rno],guest.cdate[rno]);

    printf("\n\nPress N : Change Of Name\nI : Change In NIC\nR : \

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    Check In Date\nO : Check Out Date\n\n");

    mf=getch();

    switch(mf)

    {//mf switch Begin

    case 'N':

    {//mf Case N Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New Name\n");

    gets(guest.name[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case N End

    case 'I':

    {//mf Case I Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New NIC Number\n");

    gets(guest.nic[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case I End

    case 'R':

    {//mf Case R Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New Check In Date\n");

    gets(guest.rdate[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case R End

    case 'O':

    {//mf Case O Begin

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    printf("\n\nEnter New Check Out Date\n");

    gets(guest.cdate[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case O End

    default:

    {//mf Default Begin

    printf("\n\nInvalid Entry");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Default End

    }//sr==1 if End

    } //rc Case S End

    else

    {// sr else begin

    printf("\n\nSingle Room No %d is Vacant",rno);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//sr else end

    }//rc Case S End

    case 'D':

    {// rc Case D Begin

    if(dr[rno]==1)

    {//dr==1 if Begin

    clrscr();

    printf("\n\nDouble Room No %d Is Reserved",rno);

    printf("\n\nOccupant's Name : %s \n\nOccupant's NIC Number : \

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    %s \n\nCheck In Date : %s\n\nCheck Out Date : %s \n\n",\

    guest1.name[rno],guest1.nic[rno],guest1.rdate[rno],\

    guest1.cdate[rno]);

    printf("\n\nPress N : Change Of Name\nI : Change \

    In NIC\nR : Check In Date\nO : Check Out Date\n\n");

    mf=getch();

    switch(mf)

    {//mf switch Begin

    case 'N':

    {//mf Case N Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New Name\n");

    gets(guest1.name[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case N End

    case 'I':

    {//mf Case I Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New NIC Number\n");

    gets(guest1.nic[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case I End

    case 'R':

    {//mf Case R Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New Check In Date\n");

    gets(guest1.rdate[rno]);

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    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case R End

    case 'O':

    {//mf Case O Begin

    printf("\n\nEnter New Check Out Date\n");

    gets(guest1.cdate[rno]);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Case O End

    default:

    {//mf Default Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice or make sure CAPS Lock is on");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//mf Default End

    }//dr==1 if End

    }//rc Case D End

    else

    {// dr else begin

    printf("\n\nSingle Room No %d is Vacant",rno);

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//dr else end

    } // Case D End

    default:

    {// rc Default Begin

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    printf("\n\n\nIllegal Entry Or Make Sure CAPS Lock is On");

    getch();

    mainm();

    } // rc Default End

    } //Switch rc End

    } // Limit Else Falsified End

    } //Modify Function End

    //Delete Function

    void delet(void)

    {//Delete Function

    clrscr();

    printf("Enter The Room Number To Vacate\n");

    gets(temp);

    rno=atoi(temp);

    // Room Number Limit Check

    if(rno51)

    {//IF Condition Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Room Number");

    getch();

    mainm();

    } //IF Condition End

    else

    {// Room Number Limit Falsified Else

    printf("\n\nSingle Or Double Room? (S/D)");

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    rc=getch();

    switch(rc)

    {//rc Switch Begin

    case 'S':

    {//rc Case S Begin

    sr[rno]=0;

    printf("\n\nRoom Vacated");

    printf("\n\nPress Any Key To Exit To The Main Menu");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }// rc Case S End

    case 'D':

    {//rc Case D Begin

    dr[rno]=0;

    printf("\n\nRoom Vacated");

    printf("\n\nPress Any Key To Exit To The Main Menu");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }//rc Case D End

    default:

    {//rc Default Begin

    printf("\n\nIllegal Choice Or Make Sure CAPS Lock is ON");

    getch();

    mainm();

    }// rc Default End

    }// rc Switch End

    }// Room Number Falsified Else End

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    Welcome Page

    Welcome Page displays the Detail of Project and Developer.

    Below is the flow chart of Welcome page which define the working of front page coding.

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    Welcome Page

    Logic

    Function print upper

    Horizontal Line

    Function print

    Lower Horizontal

    Line

    Function print

    Right Vertical Line

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    Out Put Screen of Welcome Window is as Shown Below.

    34

    Function displayed the Welcome window of Hotel reservation system

    Function displayed the comment Press

    any key to continue.

    Function print Left

    Vertical Line

    Welcome Page Function End

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    Options Page

    This page displays the main Option of Project, Below is the flow chart of

    Option page.

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    Out Put Window

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    Main Page

    Function start

    Function print upper

    Horizontal Line

    Function displayed the Main Option of the Program and requires

    the user Choice to perform the dedicated task.

    Function print Right

    Vertical Line

    When User Press the corresponding Keys for

    the desired action, function switched to that

    mode

    Function print

    Lower Horizontal

    line

    Function print Left

    vertical line

    A

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    37

    A

    If User Selected R

    Data Entry Page

    If User Selected V

    View Status Page

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    If user select the any other key the given below error message displays and instruct the user to

    check the whether the Caps lock is ON or not, because the selection is case sensitive.

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    If User Selected M

    Data Modification Page

    If User Selected D

    Reservation cancelation

    If User Selected Q

    Exit from the System

    If user choice is not matched, function displayed

    the default page Illegal Choice or make sure

    CAPS Lock is on.

    Main Page Function End

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    Once User Press the R key in CAPS Lock ON mode, Program enter in to the Data Entry

    function Mode.

    Data Entry Page (Booking)

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    Data Entry Page displays the option to store the customer information in Static Data

    Base.

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    Choice

    (Y/N)

    Data Entry Function Start

    Room booking confirmation

    message displayed

    Choice

    (S/D)

    Detail of Guest to be filled Detail of Guest to be filled

    Choice End

    function displayed the default page Illegal Choice or

    make sure CAPS Lock is on.

    Data Entry Function End

    NY DS

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    When program enter in the Data Entry Mode Given Below Screen Displays which require the

    confirmation for room Booking,

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    If user confirmed the Room Booking, Function displays the Choice for Single Room or Double

    Room, else function return on Option Page for the choice Selection.

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    When User selects the choice of Single Room or Double Room, Function displays the

    corresponding Vacant Room for the booking,

    Then Information of Guest is filled by user in a sequential mode, i.e.

    Guest Name

    Guest NIC No.

    Guest Check in Date

    Guest Check out Date

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    After filling up above detail function again displays the Option for another booking, if user select

    the Y then function again displays the Booking confirmation option.

    When user select the Double Room for booking, Same Option are displayed to user for the

    Room Booking,

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    And if User select the No, Function return on the main option window.

    View Page Data Flow Chart

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    This function allows the user to check the availability of Vacant Room and Booking detail of

    Booked Room, in Sequential and Manual mode.

    When User Select the V in Caps lock on Mode, Function Displays the Below option to user for

    Selcting the display of Room status in Sequential mode or Manual Mode,

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    Choice

    (Enter Room No.)

    View Room Status

    Function start

    Function print Header

    Data Extraction for Single Room

    Pause Press any key to continue

    Data Extraction for Double Room

    Data Extraction for

    Single and Double

    Room

    Choic

    e End

    View Room Status

    Function End

    Function displayed the default page Illegal Choice or

    make sure CAPS Lock is on.

    RS

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    If User Select the Sequential Mode then function displays the Room Status for single Room,

    with all data field in Header I.e.

    Room No.

    Name

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    NIC No.

    Check in DATE

    Check out Date

    After that function halt in Pause mode and ask for selecting the user to press any key to displaythe Double room Status, this Pause Mode facilitates the user to check the complete detail and

    user can view that screen till his choice.

    When user Press any key to move the function in Double room status mode, below mentioned

    Window is displayed

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    User can check the room status in Manual mode also, for that user need to select the R in Caps

    Lock Mode, when user Select R, below mentioned Message is displayed.

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    When user Enter the Room No. function displays the detail of corresponding Room No.

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    Modification Page Flow Chart

    This Page displays the option to modify the detail of booked room.

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    Room Exist

    Validati

    on

    Modification Function start

    Header (Room No.

    Entry)

    Wrong Room No.

    Function to Modify

    Room Detail

    Choice

    End

    Modification Function End

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    Function required the Room No to modify the detail,

    When User Enter the Room No, Function validate the Room No, if Room Exist function

    displayed the choice for the Single room or Double room, else function displayed the illegal

    Room No. message and Exit from the modification Module.

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    When User Enter the correct Room No, below mentioned message is displayed. and user

    required to select the type of Room,

    If User Select the Single Room type, then corresponding Room No, detail is displayed, and user

    Required to Press the desired key for the change in guest detail as per on screen instruction,

    i.e.

    N for Change in Name

    I for Change in NIC No.

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    R for Change in Check in Date

    O for Check out Date

    User can update the Detail of Guest by selecting the desired Key.

    If User selected the any other Key, the Function displays the Error Message Invalid Entry

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    User can check the updated detail by selecting the View mode as displayed below.

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    Deletion Page Flow Chart

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    This function allow user to delete the booking of any booked Room.

    When User Select the D in Option Window, below mentioned message is displayed on the

    Screen and ask the user to enter the room no which needs to be Vacate.

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    Delete Function start

    Header (Enter Room

    No,)

    Room Exist

    Validatio

    n

    Wrong Room No.

    Default

    Choice

    End

    Choice (S / D)

    Data Deleted

    Delete Function End

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    When user enter the room No. function validated the Room No. and if Room no. does not exist

    in Hotel Database, Function displays the message Illegal Room No.

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    If Room No. Exist in Hotel Database, Function Asked the user to enter the type of room.

    When user enters the type of room all detail of that room is erased from the data base and

    function displayed the message Room Vacated and ask user to Press any key to Exit from the

    Deletion Mode and back to Main Menu.

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    Verification & Validation

    Definitions:

    Verification: Are we building the product right? (i.e. does it meet the requirements

    specification?)

    Validation: Are we building the right product? (i.e. does the requirement specification

    describe what the customer wants?

    We check at each stage of the process using documents produced during previous stage.

    We do it early to catch problems early.

    Two types of Validation & Verification:

    Static: Analysis and checking of documents (including source code). Performed at all stages of

    the process.

    Dynamic: Exercise the implementation (testing"). Obviously only performed when executable

    available (this might be prototype).

    Neither is sufficient by itself. Dynamic testing is the "traditional" approach, but static techniques

    are becoming more sophisticated.

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    TESTING (Testing Techniques and Testing Strategies)

    We have tested each module separately i.e. have completed unit testing first and system testing

    was done after combining all different Modules with different menus and thorough testing was

    done. Testing is a very important part of SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) and takes

    approximately 50%of the time.

    SYSTEM TESTING:

    Testing: Testing involves executing the program (or part of it) using sample data and inferring

    from the output whether the software performs correctly or not. This can be done either during

    module development (unit testing) or when several modules are combined (system testing).

    Defect Testing: Defect testing is testing for situation where the program does not meet its

    fictional specification. Performance testing tests a system's performance or reliability under

    realistic loads. This may go some way to ensuring that the program meets its non-functional

    requirements.

    Debugging: Debugging is a cycle of detection, location, repair and test. Debugging is a

    hypothesis testing process. When a bug is detected, the tester must form a hypothesis about

    the cause and location of the bug. Further examination of the execution of the program

    (possible including many returns of it) will usually take place to confirm the hypothesis. If the

    hypothesis is demonstrated to be incorrect, a new hypothesis must be formed. Debugging tools

    that show the state of the program are useful for this, but inserting print statements is often the

    only approach. Experienced debuggers use their knowledge of common and/or obscure bugs to

    facilitate the hypothesis testing process. After fixing a bug, the system must be reset to ensure

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    that the fix has worked and that no other bugs have been introduced. This is called regression

    testing. In principle, all tests should be performed again but this is often too expensive to do.

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    TEST PLANNING:

    Testing needs to be planned to be cost and time effective. Planning is setting out standards for

    tests. Test plans set out the context in which individual engineers can place their own work.

    Typical test plan contains:

    >Overview of testing process.

    >Requirements traceability ( to ensure that all requirements are tested)

    >List of item to be tested

    >Schedule

    >Recording procedures so that test results can be audited

    >Hardware and software requirements

    >Constraints

    Implementation

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    Implementation uses the design document to produce code. Demonstration that the program

    satisfies its specifications validates the code. Typically, sample runs of the program

    demonstrating the behavior for expected data values and boundary values are required.

    Small programs are written using the model:

    Write/Compile/ Test

    It may take several iterations of the model to produce a working program. As programs get more

    complicated, testing and debugging alone may not be enough to produce reliable code.

    Instead, we have to write programs in a manner that will help insure that errors are caught

    or avoided.

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    C Programming by E. Balagurusamy (Tata McGraw-Hill)

    C Programming by Gottfried (Schaums Outline Series - Tata McGraw-Hill)

    Let Us C by Yeshwant Kanetkar (BPB Publications)

    www.Wikipedia.org

    http://www.wikipedia.org/http://www.wikipedia.org/