Research Webinar: OERS and Cognitive Science

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This webinar provides practical information on how to use published research findings and make contact with cognitive scientists in order to improve K-12 and university students’ learning from digital online resources, like Khan Academy videos or interactive mathematics exercises. The webinar focuses on how students’ motivation and grades have been increased by helping them believe they can take charge of their learning and become smarter, and how students can be supported in reflective thinking and seeking deep understanding, when questions and prompts for students to explain are inserted in videos and interactive exercises

Transcript of Research Webinar: OERS and Cognitive Science

  • 1. Improving Online Educational Resources using Cognitive Science Joseph Jay Williams Office of Online Learning Stanford University September 2013

2. Improving Online Educational Resources using Cognitive Science (& Online Collaborations between Scientists and Educators) Joseph Jay Williams josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu www.josephjaywilliams.com/education Lytics Lab, Office of Online Learning, Graduate School of Education Stanford University Slides at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar 2 3. Whats different about Online Educational Resources? A lot! Align Scientists & Educators Practical Improvements Scientific Research Refine Resources through Repeated Improvement Facilitate Collaboration Like Wikipedia? 3 Content Exercise 4. Overview I. Applying cognitive science to online learning I-a: How to increase motivation? I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies II. Online collaborations between Scientists & Educators II-a: Learning, Education & Research Network (LEARN) II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. criteria for Research-Practice friendly resources 4 5. I. Reviewing & Synthesizing Cognitive Science Research Williams, J.J. (2013). tiny.cc/improveonlinelearningImproving Learning in MOOCs by Applying Cognitive Science. Paper to be presented at the MOOCshop Workshop, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, TN. Harvey, A. G., Lee, J., Williams, J. J., Hollon, S., Walker, M., Thompson, M., & Smith, R. (in press). Improving outcome of psychosocial treatments by enhancing memory and learning. Perspectives in Psychological Science. www.josephjaywilliams.com/education Willingham, D. T. Why Don't Students Like School. Jossey-Bass (2010) Willingham, D. T. (2012). When can you trust the experts: How to tell good science from bad in education. 5 6. I-a: How to increase motivation? Many ways to increase motivation Change students implicit beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed or malleable (Dweck, 2011; Yeager & Walton, 2012) 6 7. Implicit beliefs about Intelligence On a scale from 1 to 10, how much do you agree that? Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you cant change very much. No matter how much intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bit. Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset (Dweck, 2006) Self-fulfilling prophecy Avoid uncomfortable challenges vs. Pursue Learning Opportunities Avoid asking questions vs. Examining your mistakes 7 8. Research to link Science and Practice Experiment: Using Motivation Research to boost students learning of Math online on Khan Academy Approach: 1. Quantify outcomes in real-world resource Math exercises at www.khanacademy.org 2. Synthesize recommendations from research Believing intelligence is malleable increases motivation 3. Embed experiment to evaluate Upcoming slides 8 9. 1. Learning from Math exercises on www.KhanAcademy.org Typical Exercise 9 1. Number of Problems Completed 2. Percent Correct 10. 2. Synthesize Scientific Findings Williams, J.J. (2013)Improving Learning in MOOCs by Applying Cognitive Science. Paper presented at the MOOCshop Workshop, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, TN. www.josephjaywilliams.com/education Teaching Growth Mindset of intelligence Research at Stanford by Dweck (2008) & Yeager & Walton (2011) 10 11. 3. Add motivational messages 11 Practice-as-usual Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become! Growth Mindset Message 12. 3. Embedded in vivo Experiment 12 Growth Mindset Message "Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become., "Mistakes help you learn. Think hard to learn from them. Practice-as-usual Benefit of Growth Mindset Message? Jascha Sohl-Dickstein 13. Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar # 14. Practice-as-usualGrowth Mindset MessagePositive Message 3. Add Positive messages 14 Some of these problems are hard. Do your best! 15. Does any positive message work? 15 Growth Mindset Message "Remember, the more you practice the smarter you become., "Mistakes help you learn. Think hard to learn from them. Positive Message "Some of these problems are hard. Just do your best." "This might be a tough problem, but we know you can do it. Practice-as-usual 16. Number of Problems Attempted Practice-as-usual Growth Mindset Message Positive Message Results to Analyze 16 Accuracy 17. Research to link Science & Practice 1. Outcomes in Online Resources 2. Recommendations from Research 3. Experiments Khan Academy Math Exercises Malleability of Intelligence Ongoing Experiments ? ? ? 17 18. I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? Promote reflection with Socratic questions Questions before: Problem-Based Learning Questions during: Prompt for explanations Questions after: Use assessments for instruction 18 19. 19 Add object to bucket Integrate webpage with internet Content Exercise Learning: Add vs. Integrate Slides & Discussion at tiny.cc/inacolwebinar 20. Before: Start with Questions & Problems Problem Based Learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2006; Needham & Begg, 1998; Schwartz, 1998) 20 How do you? Is it possible to? 21. During: Request explanations Fonseca & Chi, 2011 Renkl, 1997 McNamara, 2004 Rittle-Johnson, 2006 Williams & Lombrozo, 2010 21 Why? How? What are you thinking? What next? 22. Explanation and Learning Does explaining Provide a General boost to Learning Engagement Selectively guide learners to look for patterns The Subsumptive Constraints Theory: Interpret target of why-explanation in terms of a broader generalization (Williams & Lombrozo, 2010) Discover general patterns (Williams & Lombrozo, 2010, Cognitive Science) Use pre-existing knowledge (Williams & Lombrozo, 2013, Cog. Psych.) May mistakenly overgeneralize by ignoring specific examples(Williams et al, 2013, JEP: General) 22 23. After: Use Assessments as Instructional Tools Testing Effect & Ten Benefits of Testing (Roediger et al, 2011) 23 Right away: Study+Study ~= Study+Test Day/Week later: Study+Study < Study+Test Learners think: Study+Study > Study+Test 24. After: Achieve Mixing Effect with assessments Mixing Effect (Rohrer, 2009) 24 25. Applying Cognitive Science Learning: Add vs. Integrate Knowledge (Instructionism vs. Constructivism) Questions before: Problem-Based Learning Questions during: Prompt for explanations Questions after: Use assessments for instruction Further resources: www.josephjaywilliams.com/education 25 26. I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies Spend a lesson teaching a concept vs. general strategy? Online: Iteratively refine excellent lessons Online: Repeatedly reinforce habits & educational behaviors Teach What? Why? How? self- questioning/explanation strategies 26 27. Add Socratic prompts to explain & reflect Clickable link. + Prompts embedded into hints. Click here to learn about the What? Why? How? strategy 27 28. Embedded Prompts between Hint/Solution Steps 28 29. Self-questioning strategy: What? Why? How? 29 30. I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies Learning Assistant: tiny.cc/learningassistant Short 5 minute videos Guided prompts Growth Mindset Self-Questioning strategy Experiment: How do lessons influence grades? 30 31. II. Collaborations between Scientists & Educators How to gain best of both worlds? Ask Questions, Crowdsource answers The Internet removes barriers to communication & connects people 31 32. II-a: Learning, Education And Research Network (LEARN) www.learnnetwork.net Creating a virtual community: Educators, Researchers, Developers Mailing List, & Member list Discussion Forum any teacher can ask a question, so can any researcher Wiki of resources Collaborate in improving online educational resources 32 33. II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. Criteria: Research on Online Resources Can you collaborate to help your students & improve online resources? Yes, if Online Educational Resources are: Realistic Experimental Product Evaluated Accessible Theoretically motivated REPEAT iteratively improve through revision & collaboration http://edlab.tc.columbia.edu/ Organizations like iNACOL! 33 34. Review I. Applying cognitive science to online learning I-a: How to increase motivation? I-b: Increase learning without changing materials? I-c: Teaching Learning Strategies I-d: Lessons for Growth Mindset + Learning Strategies II. Online collaborations between Scientists & Educators II-a: Learning, Education & Research Network (LEARN) II-b: R.E.P.E.A.T. criteria for Research-Practice friendly resources Send advice & questions! josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu 34 35. Contact Info Joseph Jay Williams josephjaywilliams@stanford.edu www.josephjaywilliams.com/education Slides at http://tiny.cc/inacolwebinar