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    RDDirect

    www.rddirect.org.uk

    Research Process Flowchart

    This handout is an introduction to the RDDirect Research ProcessFlowchart. The on-line version can be accessed from our website at

    www.rddirect.org.ukand may be more up to date

    Last produced : 1st April 2009

    0113 295 1122

    If you are experiencing problems while conducting your researchremember that the RDDirect website and telephone advisory service are

    only a click and a call away

    Words or phrases which are in italics and underlineddenote where links to otherrecommended websites have been included in the on-line version of the flowchart.

    http://www.rddirect.org.uk/http://www.rddirect.org.uk/http://www.rddirect.org.uk/http://www.rddirect.org.uk/
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    1. Turn your ideas into a

    research question

    2. Review the literature

    3. Design the study and

    develop your method(s)

    4. Writing your researchproposal

    5. Issues about funding

    7. Collect and collate the data

    8. Analyse the data andinterpret findings

    9. Implications of your

    research for clinical practice

    10. Report on the study anddisseminate the findings

    6. Obtain ethical and trustapproval

    Participant involvement Survey design

    Sampling Statistical Issues

    Quantitative/Qualitativeresearch methods

    Questionnaire design

    Collaboration Intellectual Property

    Where do I start?

    Libraries: contacts Links to useful websites Systematic reviews

    Advice about funding

    NHS costs and costings checklist / Salaries Paying consumers involved in research

    Why ethics are so important?Know your ethics department

    Contact you Trust R&D office /RDSU

    Issues to consider Conduct issues Data Protection and confidentiality Suggested Reading

    First Stages

    Discuss your ideas with others User involvement

    Evidence-based Practice Research evidence Commercial Aspects/By-products of Research

    Data analysis Interpreting data Suggested Reading

    Writing up Research

    Disseminating Research Presenting for Conferences or Seminars Making your findings known to users

    Starting your research proposal

    Peer Review Sponsor Issues

    Prepare information sheets and consent forms. Research Governance

    Research Process Flowchart

    Produced by NIHR RDInfo www.rdinfo.org.uk

    Project planing

    Other issues to consider

    Research Reporting guidelines

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    1. Turn your idea into a research question

    First stages

    Where do you start?

    q Decide on a general area of interestq Why does this area interest you?q Answer the questions:

    r What is your aim? (In general terms)r What is your hypothesis? (In specific terms)r Is your idea novel? (See Section 2 on reviewing the literature)

    r Why does it matter?r How will NHS patients or service users benefit form your research? Consult

    colleagues and other researchers

    Discuss your ideas with others

    q Your RDS or your local R&D department?r Links to Research Design Service

    r Select your SHAto find all your local trusts and PCT

    r The R&D Forum maintains list of contacts for R&D Departments in:s Local Trusts

    s Local Primary Care Trusts (PCTs)

    q Ascertain who might be your supervisor or mentor: talk in detail with that personabout your potential research project

    q Short PowerPoint presentation entitled Turning Ideas into Research Questions, by

    Jon Silcock, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trustq Contact RDDirect for general advice (Helpline 0113 295 1122)

    q Contact RDLearning for details of workshops and courses to give you the research

    skills you need

    User Involvement

    Involve users at all stages of the research process (See User Involvement section)

    especially:

    q Setting the research agenda (See Section 2 of this flowchart)

    q Developing the proposal (See Section 3 of this flowchart)

    q During the conduct of the projectq Disseminating results (See Section 10 of this flowchart)

    http://www.rdinfo.org.uk/RDS/Default.asphttp://www.rdinfo.org.uk/RDS/hotspot/index.htmhttp://www.rdforum.nhs.uk/links/trust/_index.htmlhttp://www.rdforum.nhs.uk/links/primary/_index.htmlhttp://www.rdinfo.org.uk/flowchart/Idea%20into%20question%20presentation.ppthttp://www.rddirect.org.uk/http://www.rdlearning.org.uk/http://www.rdinfo.org.uk/flowchart/UserInvolvement.asphttp://www.rdinfo.org.uk/flowchart/UserInvolvement.asphttp://www.rdlearning.org.uk/http://www.rddirect.org.uk/http://www.rdinfo.org.uk/flowchart/Idea%20into%20question%20presentation.ppthttp://www.rdforum.nhs.uk/links/primary/_index.htmlhttp://www.rdforum.nhs.uk/links/trust/_index.htmlhttp://www.rdinfo.org.uk/RDS/hotspot/index.htmhttp://www.rdinfo.org.uk/RDS/Default.asp
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    Other issues to consider

    q Collaborating with experienced researchers (See Section 3 of this flowchart)

    q Having your research proposal peer reviewed at every stage. (See Section 4 of

    this flowchart)

    http://www.rdinfo.org.uk/flowchart/Flowchart.html
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    2. Review the Literature

    q It is essential that existing sources of evidence, especially systematicreviews, are considered carefully prior to undertaking research.

    q Re-inventing the wheel? Research which duplicates other work

    unnecessarily or which is not of sufficient quality to contributesomething useful to existing knowledge is in itself unethical.

    Where do I start?

    q How to search literature: attend a short introductory course (availableat most university libraries)

    q Discuss with your supervisor or mentor

    q Then work out a search strategyto decide on your plan of actionq Start reading: use reading lists, texts, journals, abstracts, etc.

    (Connecting for Health has a useful glossary if you get stuck with the

    acronyms)q Internet search engines may be helpful but beware of incomplete

    informationq Try looking at these three useful guides:

    r How to conduct an effective and valid literature searchfrom the

    Nursing TImesr Literature searching: University of York: Centre for Reviews

    and Dissemination

    r Millbrook House, University of Plymouth has a guide onSearching the literature and Critically Reviewing the Literature

    r Carrying Out A Literature Review from Bolton University

    q How to develop critical appraisal skills : Public Health Resource Unit

    q Consider whether your research proposal will be important to users:r The James Lind Alliance aims to identify the most important

    gaps in knowledge about the effects of treatments and bringspatients and clinicians together to identify and prioritise theunanswered questions that they agree are most important.

    r The Cochrane Consumer Network is an international consumer

    organisation within the Cochrane Collaboration.

    Libraries

    Libraries are a very good source of information and help.

    q You can find your local library from the Health Library & Information

    Services Directory (HLISD).

    http://www.connectingforhealth.nhs.uk/factsandfiction/jargonbuster/acronymshttp://www.nursingtimes.net/ntclinical/how_to_conduct_a_literature_search.htmlhttp://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/CRD_Reports/crdreport4_app1.pdfhttp://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/CRD_Reports/crdreport4_app1.pdfhttp://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/millbrook/rsources/sealit/srchguid.htmhttp://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/millbrook/rsources/sealit/critical.htmhttp://data.bolton.ac.uk/bissto/researchskills/research_method/lit_review.htmhttp://www.phru.nhs.uk/Pages/PHD/resources.htmhttp://www.lindalliance.org/http://www.cochrane.org/consumers/http://www.hlisd.org/index.aspxhttp://www.hlisd.org/index.aspxhttp://www.hlisd.org/index.aspxhttp://www.hlisd.org/index.aspxhttp://www.cochrane.org/consumers/http://www.lindalliance.org/http://www.phru.nhs.uk/Pages/PHD/resources.htmhttp://data.bolton.ac.uk/bissto/researchskills/research_method/lit_review.htmhttp://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/millbrook/rsources/sealit/critical.htmhttp://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/millbrook/rsources/sealit/srchguid.htmhttp://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/CRD_Reports/crdreport4_app1.pdfhttp://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/CRD_Reports/crdreport4_app1.pdfhttp://www.nursingtimes.net/ntclinical/how_to_conduct_a_literature_search.htmlhttp://www.connectingforhealth.nhs.uk/factsandfiction/jargonbuster/acronyms
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    q Social Care Online provides a complete range of information and

    research on all aspects of social care.

    Links to useful websites

    These websites are excellent for literature searching. In some cases you willneed a password which your library may be able to provide.

    q PubMed -Searches MEDLINE and other life science journals for

    biomedical articles back to the 1950sq Intute - Major bibliographic database for biomedical sciences

    q Cochrane Library - A collection of evidence-based medicine

    databases, including The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewsq Embase - Major bibliographic database for biomedical sciences

    q PsycINFO - Major bibliographic database for psychology. Coverage:1887 to date.

    q RDDirect- for links to the above and to other databases

    q The National Library for Health provides (free) access to 8

    bibliographical databases and over 800 full text journals - excellent forliterature searching. The databases are:

    r AMED - Allied and Complementary Medicine Database

    r BNI - The British Nursing Index (BNI) is a UK nursing database

    which covers British publications and ot