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Research assignment for frankfinn

Transcript of Research assignment

  • 1.P1a(LO1)

2. Introduction A belly landing or gear-up landing occurs when an aircraft lands without itslanding gear fully extended and uses its underside, or belly, as its primarylanding device. Normally the term gear-up landing refers to incidents in whichthe pilot forgets to extend the landing gear, while belly landing refers toincidents where a mechanical malfunction prevents the pilot from extending thelanding gear. During a belly landing, there is normally extensive damage to the airplane. Bellylandings carry the risk that the aircraft may flip over, disintegrate, or catch fireif it lands too fast or too hard. Extreme precision is needed to ensure that theplane lands as straight and level as possible while maintaining enough airspeedto maintain control. Strong crosswinds, low visibility, damage to the airplane, orunresponsive instruments or controls greatly increase the danger ofperforming a belly landing. Still, belly landings are one of the most commontypes of aircraft accidents, and are normally not fatal if executed carefully. 3. Identify the field of research and justify the choice. The field of research is belly landing This is my choice because am interested in the topics such as belly landing and I would like to go in the deeper study of belly landing which happened with the US airways in the Hudson river. 4. Acknowledgement First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my Almighty. Next I thank my Parents for theconstant support and encouragement without whom it was impossible for me to complete my presentation. Then I humbly acknowledge the assistance of all Frankfinn Staffespecially my External Faculty Mrs. Kaveri Pratap whoshowed me the perfect way to complete my customer relationship management presentation. Last but not the least I am great full to all my friends & well-wishers whohelped me in all the possible aspects. 5. Research proposal (opinion, advantage,disadvantage, types) OPINION My opinion to the Hudson river belly landing is that the pilot was well trained and he landed the aircraft in the proper place and was rewarded as a hero because 100% passengers were survived with no injuries to any pax or the crew. If it was not landed properly then there could be a death of minimum pax because there where 155 paxs on board 6. ADVANTAGENo major damage to the paxs.If there is a suitable landing spot within the aircrafts gliding or autorotation distance, an unplanned landing will often result in no injuries or significant damage to the aircraft. 7. DISADVANTAGEOne disadvantage of water landing is that it is dangerous in the presence of waves. Furthermore, the necessary equipment compromises the crafts aerodynamic efficiency and speed. 8. TYPESThere are several different types of emergency landings forpowered aircraft: planned landing or unplanned landingForced landingPrecautionary landingCrash landingDitching 9. Forced landing The aircraft is forced to make a landing due to technicalproblems, or in rare situations with light aircraft, weatherconditions. Landing as soon as possible is a priority, nomatter where, since a major system failure has occurred oris imminent. This means that the forced landing may evenoccur when the aircraft is still flyable, in order to prevent acrash or ditching situation. 10. Precautionary landing May result from a planned landing at a location about whichinformation is limited, from unanticipated changes duringthe flight, or from abnormal or even emergency situations.This may be as a result of problems with the aircraft, or amedical or police emergency. The sooner a pilot locates andinspects a potential landing site, the less the chance ofadditional limitations being imposed by worsening aircraftconditions, deteriorating weather, or other factors. 11. Crash landing Is caused by the failure of or damage to vital systems suchas engines, hydraulics, or landing gear, and so a landingmust be attempted where a runway is needed but none isavailable. The pilot is essentially trying to get the aircraft onthe ground in a way which minimizes the possibility of injuryor death to the people aboard. 12. Ditching Is the same as a forced landing, only on water. After thedisabled aircraft makes contact with the surface of thewater, the aircraft will most likely sink if it is not designedto float, although it may well float for hours, depending ondamage. 13. HypothesisIF the pilot have not been landed the aircraft inthe correct manner in Hudson river as bellylanding THEN all the passengers may not besurvived and evacuated successfully. 14. P2a(LO2)P2b(LO2) 15. Sources of data: Existing data Primary sourceSecondary sourceDiscussion with facultyInternetNewspapermagazine 16. Primary researchSecondary research Our facultyMagazinesMrs. Kaveri Pratap News Papers Internet 17. How it helped me?How primary sources helped me?My primary source of data was Discussion with theaviation faculty. She helped me in sorting out thecorrect data and she also gave me tips which were veryuseful for the assignment.How secondary source helped me?Secondary source helped me to find out the data which wasrequired for the completion of the assignment. It also helpedme to compare all the data and convert it into usefulinformation. 18. P1b(LO1) 19. MethodologyThe methodology I have used for doing research wasexisting data. I used this methodology because of thefollowing reasons: it provides a larger and higher-quality database It becomes easier to compare the data, as this methodology provides large database. Its inexpensive. Its not time consuming. 20. Code of ethics: The contents of the project should be bases on proper findings. Will monitor the progress of the project. Have discussion about the project with the faculty. Completion of the project in the allotted time. Always stick to the code of ethics. I shall put in my 100% of effort in doing this project. 21. P1c&d(LO1) 22. No reviewssubmission date : 10/02/2012 23. Subject material with headings 24. US Airways Flight 1549 was US Airways scheduled domesticcommercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in NewYork City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport,Charlotte, North Carolina. On January 15, 2009, the aircraftflying this route, an Airbus A320-214, was successfully ditchedin the Hudson River adjacent to midtown Manhattan sixminutes after takeoff from LaGuardia Airport after beingdisabled by striking a flock of Canada geese during its initialclimb out. The incident became known as the "Miracle On TheHudson". 25. The windscreen "was literally filled with big, dark brown birds," Sullenberger toldinvestigators with the National Transportation Safety Board. His instinct was to duck, saidNTSB member Kitty Higgins, who revealed Sunday new details of the planes extraordinarysafe landing in the Hudson River. Sullenberger, 58, and Skiles, 49, felt thuds as the birds slammed into the jet, which wasflying more than 250 mph. The captain smelled "burning birds," he told investigators. Through a combination of good piloting, swift reactions from the three flight attendantsand a rapid rescue effort, all 150 passengers and the five crewmembers escaped afterperhaps the most remarkable emergency landing in the history of U.S. aviation. Federal accident investigators have slowly been piecing together what happenedThursday. The following account is based on investigators interviews with the pilots, flightattendants and a review of air-traffic control tapes, according to Higgins: Once the birds hit, Sullenberger immediately took control. "My aircraft," he said. An air-traffic controller radioed the jet at 3:27:32 p.m. 98 seconds after the jet hadbeen cleared for takeoff with a routine heading change. 26. "Ah, this is Cactus 1549," came the clipped reply from one of the pilots, using the airlines shorthandidentification and flight number. "Hit birds. We lost thrust in both engines. Were turning back towardsLaGuardia." His engines silent, Sullenberger first stabilized the jet by pointing the nose down to maintain speed, he said.What he did next proved fortuitous. Responding to the distress call, the air-traffic controller told them toturn left toward the southwest so they could circle back to LaGuardia. That put them on a flight path directlytoward the wide waters of the Hudson adjacent to Manhattan. Luckily, the skies were sunny, the winds calm. But where to land? Stabilized for the moment, Skiles was desperately trying to restart the engines. Without power, their AirbusA320 was a glider weighing more than 100,000 pounds. At its peak, it was 3,200 feet in the air. The glide to the ground would be about 3 minutes. To Sullenbergers left was LaGuardia Airport and densely populated Queens. Sullenberger was concernedthat the area was too heavily populated, with too many buildings. A few miles to the right lay Teterboro Airport in New Jersey. It was even farther away, and he had neverlanded there. He "didnt think he could make it. And was concerned that if he didnt make it, it was also apopulated area," Higgins said. 27. The only alternative lay directly ahead of them: the Hudson River. Back on the ground, air-traffic controllers were desperately clearing the skies around Flight 1549 andpreparing LaGuardia for an emergency landing. Which runway did they want to land on, a controller radioed. "Were gonna be in the Hudson," responded one of the pilots, most likely Skiles. "Brace for impact," one ofthe pilots said over the public-address system. "Brace, brace! Heads down," the flight attendants shouted. At the front of the cabin, two attendants said the impact felt like a hard landing, Higgins recounted. Theydidnt realize they were in the water until they looked outside. At the tail, the landing was more violent. Items in the galley jostled loose. Sullenberger opened the cockpit door moments later to order an evacuation. After opening the front exitdoors and inflating rafts, passengers opened doors over both wings. The attendant at t