Res Publica Romanorum ( The Roman Republic)

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Res Publica Romanorum ( The Roman Republic). Pre-Roman Italy. The Latini settled along the Tiber River around 800 BC Seven villages atop seven hills grew together into the city of Rome North of Rome were the Etruscans, whom the Romans selected their kings from - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Res Publica Romanorum ( The Roman Republic)

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Res Publica Romanorum(The Roman Republic)Pre-Roman ItalyThe Latini settled along the Tiber River around 800 BCSeven villages atop seven hills grew together into the city of RomeNorth of Rome were the Etruscans, whom the Romans selected their kings fromSouth of Rome were Greek colonists

The Roman RepublicRomans ousted king and established a new governmentBecame a republic a thing of the people where all officials were electedKept any one person from gaining too much powerSPQR = Senatus Populus que Romanus (The Senate and People of Rome)

The SenateRuling body of the Republic was the senate, a law making body (legislature) of 300 patricians (upper class citizens)

ConsulsSenate elected two senators as consuls to supervise the government and command the armies (duties similar to those of the US President)Could only served 1 year and could only serve 1 term every 10 yearsConsuls still had to answer to the senate

DictatorsDuring war or time of crisis, the senate could appoint a dictatorDictator had absolute power, BUT could only hold that power for 6 monthsSenate had to choose dictators carefully!

TribunesPosition created to satisfy the demands of the plebeians (lower class) and to watch after their interestsCould veto any law passed by the senateEventually, plebeians also gained the right to serve in the senate and to be consuls

Laws of the Twelve TablesIn order to ensure that their rights were protected, the plebeians demanded that the laws be posted in a public place; this led to the laws being inscribed on 10 tablets (with 2 more added later) and posted in the Roman Forum

Punic Wars with CarthageBy 270 BC, Rome controlled all of Italybetween 264 and 146 BC, Rome fought three wars with Carthage for control of Mediterranean tradeAfter crushing Carthage, Rome controlled an area from Spain to Egypt and dominated the Mediterranean world

Expansion During the Republic

Consequences of GrowthIncreased use of slaves from conquered areas bankrupted many farmers; they moved to Rome and other cities and were cared for by the stateGreat wealth of Rome led to high rate of corruption among officialsRome needed a strong leader, but the senate feared allowing anyone to gain too much power; this led to street violence and civil wars as charismatic leaders tried to rally support among the people against the senate

The First TriumviratePolitical alliance intent on taking control of RomeCrassus: brought wealthPompey: brought military reputationJulius Caesar: brought youth and popularity with the peopleCrassus killed in battle against Parthians in 53 BC

Julius Caesar Takes OverCaesar and Pompey began to fight each other for control of RomeEventually, Julius Caesar marched his army into Rome and seized control in 50 BC; Caesar forced the senate to name him dictator for lifePompey fled to Egypt but was assassinated

Julius Caesars ReignCaesar was very popular with the people, but not the senateStarted a program of public works to employ the joblessReorganized the government and expanded the number of people who qualified for Roman citizenship44 BC, Caesar was stabbed to death in the senate

Octavian vs. AntonyAfter Caesars death, his nephew Octavian and his top general Marc Antony eliminated the senators involvedOctavian and Antony then fought for control of Rome; Octavian won in 31 BC by defeating Antony and his lover/ally, Queen Cleopatra of EgyptAntony & Cleopatra both committed suicide

Octavian AugustusA weakened senate gave Octavian the title Augustus (exalted one), and declared him princeps (first citizen); he was in effect the first emperor of Rome and ruled from 31 BC to 14 AD (45 years)

The Pax RomanaThe Roman Peace: 200 year period from rule of Octavian Augustus to that of Marcus AureliusLittle fighting, no civil warsLaws were enforced, people were protected from bandits and piratesRome grew wealthy from conquest and tradeThe poor were pacified with entertainments such as gladiatorial contests, and with free bread and housing

Roman SocietyFamily based; father had absolute rule over his family (paterfamilias)All citizens given a basic education, including learning how to read and writeRoman religion and gods were almost identical to those of the Greeks

Roman LiteratureEpic poetry: Virgils Aeneid tells how Aeneas escaped the sack of Troy to found RomeSatire: many authors made fun of Roman societyHistory: famous historians Livy and TacitusPhilosophy: Greek and later, Christian influenced

Art & ArchitectureRealistic sculpturesMosaics and frescoesHuge buildings and arenasImproved on columns and the arch, invented concrete, domed roofsMost famous buildings: the Pantheon, The Coliseum

Technology & ScienceExcellent engineers, built roads, bridges, harborsBuilt huge aqueducts to bring water into the citiesPtolemy, an astronomer, theorized that the earth was the center of the universe (he was wrong), but his idea survived for 1500 years!Writings on medicine, zoology, botany, etc.

LawAccused were innocent until proven guiltyGuilt had to be proven with evidenceAccused was allowed to face and question their accuserAll of these remain important cornerstones of modern law!