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  • DOCUMENT RESUME

    ED 452 432 CE 081 739

    AUTHOR Cheung, Man-Chiu LauTITLE A Study of the Relationship between Adults' Self-Directed

    Learning Readiness and Selected Variables in Sunday Schoolsof Hong Kong Chinese Baptist Churches.

    PUB DATE 1999-02-00NOTE 270p.; Dissertation presented to the faculty of the Hong

    Kong branch of the Asia Baptist Graduate TheologicalSeminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for thedegree Doctor of Theology.

    PUB TYPE Dissertations/Theses Doctoral Dissertations (041) --Reports Research (143) Tests/Questionnaires (160)

    LANGUAGE English, ChineseEDRS PRICE MF01/PC11 Plus Postage.DESCRIPTORS *Adult Learning; Adult Programs; Church Programs; Church

    Workers; Comparative Analysis; Educational Attainment;Employment Level; Enrollment Trends; Foreign Countries;*Independent. Study; *Learning Readiness; *PredictorVariables; *Religious Education; Sex Differences; StudentAttitudes; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Qualifications; YouthPrograms

    IDENTIFIERS Baptists; *Hong Kong; Self Directed Learning ReadinessScale; *Sunday School

    ABSTRACTThe relationship between adults' self-directed learning

    readiness (SDLR) and selected variables was examined in a study of 25 HongKong Chinese Baptist Churches. A Chinese version of the Self-DirectedLearning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to a stratified sample of820 adult learners and 210 youth learners, and a modified version of theSDLRS was given to 163 Sunday school teachers so that the teachers could ratethe learning readiness of their students. The response rates for the adultlearners, youth learners, and teachers were 58.05%, 67.62%, and 75.46%,respectively. The learners' mean rating of their SDLR was higher than theteachers' mean rating of adult learners' SDLR. Adult learners exhibitedhigher self-directed learning readiness scores than youth learners did.Adults' SDLR scores did not depend on gender but were positively related toeducation and employment levels. (Twenty tables and 10 figures are included.The bibliography lists 108 references. The following items are among thoseappended: attendance rates at Hong Kong Chinese Baptist churches;project-related correspondence; data on the numbers of adult Sunday schoolteachers; English and Chinese versions of the SDLRS; questionnaire forteachers' ratings of adult learners' self-directed learning readiness; datafrom the questionnaires; project abstract; and biographical information aboutthe researcher.) (MN)

    Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be madefrom the original document.

  • Cs1

    esi A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULTS' SELF-DIRECTEDin

    LEARNING READINESS AND SELECTED VARIABLES

    IN SUNDAY SCHOOLS OF HONG KONG

    CHINESE BAPTIST CHURCHES

    A DISSERTATION

    PRESENTED TO

    THE FACULTY OF THE HONG KONG BRANCH

    OF THE

    ASIA BAPTIST GRADUATE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

    IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

    DOCTOR OF THEOLOGY

    PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE ANDDISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS

    BEEN GRANTED BY

    / (,__ ki4A

    TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)

    BY

    MAN-CHIU LAU CHEUNG

    HONG KONG

    FEBRUARY 1999

    BEST COPY AVAIIABLE

    2

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice of Educational Research and Improvement

    EDI,ICATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONJ CENTER (ERIC)This document has been reproduced asreceived from the person or organizationoriginating it.

    0 Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality.

    Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy.

  • APPROVAL SHEET

    A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULTS' SELF-DIRECTED

    LEARNING READINESS AND SELECTED VARIABLES

    IN SUNDAY SCHOOLS OF HONG KONG

    CHINESE BAPTIST CHURCHES

    MAN-CHIU LAU CHEUNG

    RECOMMENDED FOR APPROVAL BY:

    DATE 2-1 ( 419

    SUPERVISORY PROFESSOR

    dtgzel.P %Au SECOND READERDATE deer-4-.< ./777

    APPROVED BY TEACHING BRANCH FACULTY

    BRANCH DIRECTOR

    DATE

    VALIDATED BY:

    DATE

    DATE

    3

    DEAN

    PRESIDENT

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I wish to express my gratitude to the faculty of Asia Baptist

    Graduate Theological Seminary for giving me the privilege of

    studying the Doctor of Theology in the Hong Kong Branch. I wish

    to express my heartfelt thanks to my Supervisor, Dr. Stephen Tam,

    for his insightful advice and patient mentoring. Special thanks are

    expressed to Dr. Joy Cullen for serving as the Second Reader and

    giving helpful comments.

    Deep appreciation is extended to Mrs. Marjorie Dean for her

    constant encouragement and assistance. I am grateful to Mrs. Jean

    Bond for proof-reading the final draft of this dissertation.

    I am grateful to the Executive Director, Rev. Wood-ping Chu,

    of Hong Kong Baptist Convention for his recommendation to

    conduct this research project in Hong Kong Chinese Baptist

    churches. I am deeply indebted to the pastors, Sunday School

    directors, Sunday School teachers, adult learners, and youth

    learners of the participating Baptist churches, who spent time and

    energy to contribute to the survey. I am also thankful to the

    pastors and Sunday School directors of all Hong Kong Chinese

    iii

    4

  • Baptist churches for providing information about their adult

    Sunday Schools.

    Much appreciation is extended to my adult friends whose

    examples have greatly inspired me about the importance of adults'

    self-directed learning. Special thanks are expressed to my close

    friends for their support and encouragement throughout this

    project.

    Finally, I am most grateful to my husband, Wilkin, who has

    shown constant support and loving care along the way of my

    intellectual and spiritual pursuit.

    iv

    5

  • CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii

    LIST OF TABLES viii

    LIST OF FIGURES x

    LIST OF STATISTICAL OUTPUTS xi

    Chapter

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    Statement of the Problem 3

    Sub-Problems 4

    Synthesis of Related Literature 5

    Significance of the Study 29

    Hypotheses 32

    2. METHOD 34

    Population 34

    Sampling 35

    Instruments 36

    Limitations to the Study 44

    Definition of Terms 46

    Assumptions of the Study 47

    Procedure for Collecting Data 48

    3. ANALYSIS 58

    Procedure for Analyzing Data 58

    v

    6

  • Testing the Hypotheses 59

    Statistical Tests Employed 64

    Presentation of the Data and Analysis 68

    Conclusion 116

    4. INTERPRETATIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS 117

    Interpretations 117

    Recommendations 125

    Summary 139

    Conclusion 143

    WORKS CITED 145

    Appendix

    A. SUNDAY SCHOOL AVERAGE ATTENDANCEOF HONG KONG CHINESE BAPTISTCHURCHES IN 1996

    B. LETTER TO HONG KONG CHINESE BAPTISTCHURCHES ASKING ABOUT INFORMATIONOF THEIR ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOLS

    C. NUMBER OF ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOLTEACHERS OF HONG KONG CHINESEBAPTIST CHURCHES IN AUGUST 1996 -JULY 1997

    D. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING READINESSSCALE FORM-A ORIGINAL ENGLISHVERSION

    E. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING READINESSSCALE FORM-A REVISED ENGLISHVERSION IN HONG KONG IN 1983

    vi

    7

    160

    163

    165

    168

    173

  • F. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING READINESSSCALE FORM-A CHINESE VERSION IN 1983. 179

    G. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING READINESSSCALE FORM-A REVISED CHINESEVERSION IN 1997

    H. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHER'S RATINGOF ADULT LEARNERS' SELF-DIRECTEDLEARNING READINESS

    I. LETTER FROM EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OFHONG KONG BAPTIST CONVENTION ANDLETTER FROM SUPERVISOR OF THERESEARCHER

    J. LETTER TO SUNDAY SCHOOL DIRECTORSOF CHURCHES DISTRIBUTING THELEARNER QUESTIONNAIRES AND THETEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES

    185

    193

    200

    203

    K. LETTER TO SUNDAY SCHOOL DIRECTORSOF CHURCHES DISTRIBUTING THETEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES ONLY 206

    L. LETTER TO ADULT SUNDAY SCHOOLTEACHERS OF PARTICIPATING CHURCHES 209

    M. LETTER TO SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHERSDISTRIBUTING THE QUESTIONNAIRES TOSTUDENTS OF YOUTH AND ADULT SUNDAYSCHOOLS OF PARTICIPATING CHURCHES . . 211

    N. DATA FROM ADULT LEARNERQUESTIONNAIRES 213

    DATA FROM YOUTH LEARNERQUESTIONNAIRES 229

    P. DATA FROM TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES . . . 234

    ABSTRACT

    BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

    vii

    8

  • LIST OF TABLES

    Table Page

    1. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model 17

    2. Number of Learner Questionnaires Sent toParticipating Churches in October 1997 . 51

    3. Number of Teacher Questionnaires Sent toParticipating Churches in October 1997 . 52

    4. Number of Questionnaires Sent to ParticipatingChurches in December 1997 54

    5. Return Rates of Questionnaires 54

    6. Number of Usable Learner QuestionnairesReturned by Participating Churches 55

    7. Number of Usable Teacher QuestionnairesReturned by Participating Churches 56

    8. Descriptive Statistics of the Three Samples 68

    9. Mean Scores of Adult Learners withDifferent Education Levels 73

    10. Mean Scores of Male and Female AdultLearners with Different Education Levels .

    11. Mean Scores of Adult Learners withDifferent Job Levels

    79

    84

    12. Mean Scores of Male and Female AdultLearners with Different Job Levels 89

    viii

  • 13. Mean Scores of Adult Learners ofOccupations without Job Levels 94

    14. Mean Scores of Teachers with DifferentNumbers of Years Teaching Adult SundaySchools 95

    15. Mean Job-Levels of Adult Learners withDifferent Education Levels 99

    16. Mean Scores of Adult Learners withDifferent Age Groups 101

    17. Mean Score