Renewable and non renewable sources of energy

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Transcript of Renewable and non renewable sources of energy


  • IntroductionEnergy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy expenditure.

  • Non renewable vs. Renewable Natural resources that can be replaced and reused by nature are termed renewable. Natural resources that cannot be replaced are termed nonrenewable.Renewable resources are replaced through natural processes at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are used, and depletion is usually not a worry. Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible and are extracted faster than the rate at which they formed. E.g. Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas).

  • How much longer can we depend on Fossil fuels?Because they are fossil fuels they do have a life expectancy.Burning fossil fuels has increased atmospheric pollution.The carbon stored in fossil fuels is released as carbon dioxide when they are burnt this leads to the green house effect and global warming.

  • Source wise and state wise estimated potential of renewable power in INDIA as on 31.03.2012

  • Power production status of non-conventional energy in India

    Renewable Power Potential Achieved

    Wind Power 20,000 MW 1,000 MW

    Small Hydro Power 10,000 MW 172 MW

    Biomass 20,000 MW 141 MW

    Solar photo-voltic Power 20 MW/ 810 KW

  • Government created the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. In 1992 a full fledged Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources was established under the overall charge of the Prime Minister.The range of its activities cover

    1. Promotion of renewable energy technologies, 2. Create an environment conducive to promote renewable energy technologies, 3.Create an environment conducive for their commercialization, 4.Renewable energy resource assessment, 5.Research and development,6.Demonstration, 7.Production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar photovoltaics, cookstoves, wind energy and small hydropower units.

    Renewable energy scenario in India



  • The Sun is 93 million miles away.

    A tiny fraction of the Suns energy hits the Earth (~a hundredth of a millionth of a percent) is enough to meet all our power needs many times over. In fact, every minute, enough energy arrives at the Earth to meet our whole demands for a year.

    We call the energy from the sun, solar energy.

    Just the tiny fraction of the Suns energy that hits the Earth.

    Solar energy is transmitted to the earth in the form of radiant energy.

    It is vital to us because it provides the worlddirectly or indirectly with almost all of its energy.

    In addition to providing the energy that sustains the world, solar energy is stored in fossil fuels and biomass, and is responsible for powering the water cycle and producing wind.*

  • Radiant Energy

    Solar energy is radiation produced by nuclear fusion inside the suns core.

    It takes millions of years for the energy in the suns core to make its way to the solar surface.

    It takes 8 minutes to travel 93 million miles to earth. (186,000 miles per second)

    The Greenhouse effect traps some of the heat making life on earth possible.*

  • Heating WaterSpace HeatingGenerating Electrical EnergyMajor uses of Solar Energy

  • Solar Technologies Day lighting Passive Solar


    Solar ThermalPhotovoltaic's


    The four technologies employed to make use of solar energy are:

    Daylighting- the use of natural sunlight to brighten the buildings interior.

    Passive Solar Heating- takes advantage of Suns warmth and materials that absorb that warmth during the day/release it at night when heat is needed.

    Active Solar Heating- solar collectors concentrate the suns power on dark color plates that absorb heat. Air or liquid flows through tubes and warmed by the plates.

    Concentrating Solar Thermal- mirrors direct sunlight on one point. Water is turned into steam with this heat. The steam turns a turbine to create electricity.

    Photovoltaic(PV)- converts sunlight directly to electricity.*

  • This graphic shows how the power tower is used to heat molten salt which is used to heat water to produce steam to turn a turbine which produces electricity.

    Molten salt is used to transfer the heat because the heat can be stored and used when the sun is behind the clouds or at night.*

  • Power Tower

    This graphic shows how the power tower is used to heat molten salt which is used to heat water to produce steam to turn a turbine which produces electricity.

    Molten salt is used to transfer the heat because the heat can be stored and used when the sun is behind the clouds or at night.*

  • Photovoltaic Components

    PV CellsModulesArrays

    One PV cell only produces 1 or 2 watts of electricity, which isn't enough power for most applications.

    To Increase power groups of solar cells are electrically connected and packaged into packaged weather-tight modules and arrays to provide useful output voltages and currents to provide a specific power output.

    A PV System typically consists of 3 basic components.

    PV cells - Electricity is generated by PV cells, the smallest unit of a PV system,

    Modules - PV cells are wired together to form modules which are usually a sealed, or encapsulated, unit of convenient size for handling.

    Arrays Groups of panels make up an array.


  • CleanSustainable (can be used for longer duration)Free of costProvide Electricity to Remote PlacesAdvantages of Solar Energy

  • Disadvantages of Solar EnergyInefficient maximum efficiency up to 30%.Costly equipment.Part Time.High maintenance cost.

  • Photovoltaic Array Fields

    In order to generate large amounts of electricity which can be fed into the electric grid, large number of arrays can be wired together to form an Array Field.*

  • *Photovoltaic system is ideal for remote applications whether other power sources are impractical or unavailable, such as in the Swiss Alps or on navigational buoys. It is not practical to connect these applications to an electric grid.

  • *

  • The Tides Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels due to combined effect

    of the Moon , the Sun and rotation of the Earth.


  • Tidal Energy

  • Tidal EnergyMillions of gallons of water flow onto shore during tidal flows and away from shore during ebb (move away from the land) tide periods.

    The larger the tidal influence, the greater the displacement of water and therefore the more potential energy that can be harvested during power generation.

  • Tidal energy is one of many forms of hydropower generation.Tidal power has many advantages as compared to other forms of renewable energy.

    It is predictableGlobal Climate Change should only increase its generating capacity due to higher ocean levels.It is completely carbon neutral like wind or hydro energy.


  • Tidal Stream Generators


  • Tidal Stream Generators The worlds only operational commercial-scale tidal turbine, SeaGen, was installed in Strangford Narrows in Northern Ireland in 2008.

    The prototype SeaGen turbine produces 1.2MW with currents of 2.4m/s or more. The capacity factor exceeds 60%.

    The facility is an accredited UK power station, and can contribute up to 6,000MWh annually to the UK grid, the equivalent of approximately 1500 homes.

    The commercial system under development by MCT is known as SeaGen . The prototype is operational in Strangford Narrows, Northern Ireland, and uses twin 16m diameter rotors to develop a rated power of 1.2MW at a current velocity of 2.4m/s. The system is accredited to OFGEM as an official UK generating station and regularly runs at full rated power. It has the capability to deliver about 10MWh per tide, which adds up to 6,000MWh per year. This is approximately the rate of energy capture that a wind turbine of about 2.4MW rated capacity can typically produce. So SeaGen shows that the tides are not only more prodictable than wind but twice as productive.


  • Tidal Stream Generator Specifics


  • Advantages of using Tidal PowerPredictable source of green" energy during lifetime of barrageIt produces no greenhouse gases or other waste; it needs no fuel.Not expensive to maintain.Tidal energy has an efficiency of 80% in converting the potential energy of the water into electricityVertical-axis tidal generators may be joined together in series to create a tidal fence capable of generating electricity on a scale comparable to the largest existing fossil fuel based, hydroelectric and nuclear energy generation facilities*

  • Disadvantages of using Tidal PowerA barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build, and affects a very wide area the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstreamIt provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out, which is not very much