Recycling rare metals from ICT wastes - Urban mining

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Recycling rare metals from ICT wastes - Urban mining. Eunsook Kim (Eunah) Dave Faulkner WP3/5 Technical Session. Contents. Introduction Rare metals in ICT Recycling of rare metals Designing green standards for recycling rare metals. Waste Management with Smart ICT. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Recycling rare metals from ICT wastes - Urban mining

Title of the PresentationCommitted to Connecting the World
Recycling rare metals
from ICT wastes
Committed to Connecting the World
Contents
Introduction
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Committed to Connecting the World
Waste Management with Smart ICT
In the context of ICT, there is
Industrial waste during production
Waste due to obsolescence
minerals, which has environmental and
economic implications
The most commonly used metals in terms of volume are aluminium, iron, copper, nickel, zinc and the lead in cathode ray tubes in televisions and monitors.
But other metals, only used in very small amounts, such as beryllium, europium, indium, tantalum and the platinum group are essential for today’s ICT
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Committed to Connecting the World
Definitions of rare metals
Definition 1: Rare metals are those metals which are expensive or whose price has increased dramatically
Definition 2: Rare metals are metals with a low current availability
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Source: TEXTE, 23/07 ISSN 1862-4804, Rare metals: Measures and concepts for the solution of the problem of conflict-aggravating raw material
extraction – the example of coltan
WP3/5 Technical Session - Nov 25, 2010
Committed to Connecting the World
Rare metals in ICT (1/4)
A large number of rare metals are used in ICT products
A tonne of cell phones contains more gold than a tonne of ore from a typical gold mine.
An average gold mine produces 5 grams of gold per tonne of rock
whereas cell phones contain 150 grams per tonne or more.
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DF estimates
1. Cellphones emissions worldwide: 0.112 Tonnes of CO2 x 4 Billion = 448 MT CO2
Globally, power generation emits nearly 10 billion tons of CO2 per year
from 50,000 power plants
Each power plant produces 200M tonnes CO2 on average
Hence 2.6 power generation plants are needed to support the cellular phone industry
2. Cellphones. See http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Oct2007/5349.htm
“A new study published by IMS Research “The Worldwide Market for Cellular Infrastructure - 7th edition” is looking, among other topics, at the worldwide installed base of base stations. This is expected to jump from just above 2.7 million in 2006 to nearly 3.1 million in 2007”.
Base station transceivers use at a conservative estimate 100W so total base station power load worldwide is around 300MW. Less than 1 power station
See
http://www.powermanagementdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=202201389
The peak power of a cellphone is approximately 1W. At 10% duty-cycle (0.1 Erlangs) the worldwide consumption would be around 400MW or approximately 1 power station
Chargers would represent an additional 0.5W load if switched on all day even without a phone connected.
http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/charger/
This would be 2GW worldwide or 4 power stations, so switch the off when not in use!!
See also
http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/pdf/CoC%20PowerSupply%20Version3-28112007.pdf
Committed to Connecting the World
Rare metals in ICT (2/4)
Rare metals in a mobile phone
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Committed to Connecting the World
Rare Metals in ICT (3/4)
Selected rare metals in ICT goods and manufacturing
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Source: OECD, based on Angerer et al., 2009; Steinweg & de Haan, 2007; USGS, 2009
WP3/5 Technical Session - Nov 25, 2010
Committed to Connecting the World
Rare metals in ICT (4/4)
Rare metals are essential not only in existing ICT products but also in emerging new ones such as electric vehicles
ICTs are used for control systems, sensors, instrument panels, etc.
Benefits of ‘Green car’
Committed to Connecting the World
Recycling of rare metals (1/5)
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Disused cell phones, LCD television and computers contain valuable rare earths, such as neodymium, which are in high demand, especially for hybrid vehicles.
For example, each Toyota Prius requires approximately 2.2 pounds of neodymium.
WP3/5 Technical Session - Nov 25, 2010
Committed to Connecting the World
Recycling of rare metals (2/5)
Urban mining (cont’d)
Recently the Japanese government launched an advertising campaign that included prizes offered, to get their citizens to recycle their unused cell phones.
Over a half million were collected in 100 days, enough to yield close to
- 50 pounds of gold
- 175 pounds of silver
- over 5 tons (10,000 pounds!) of copper
Committed to Connecting the World
Recycling of rare metals (3/5)
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Committed to Connecting the World
Recycling of rare metals (4/5)
A typical example of urban mining
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For efficient ‘collecting’ and ‘recycling’,
related information from ‘production stage’ will give huge benefits for recycling rare metals
To harness the potential of urban mines, manufacturers are seeking to reintegrate used products and their components into the production cycle
Figure source: L.rareMetals
Committed to Connecting the World
Recycling of rare metals (5/5)
A ‘cradle to cradle’ raw material and recycling approach aims to keep all the materials in circulation [1]
Design includes easy disassembly
No need for mining of raw materials
Reducing unstable supply of rare metals
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[1] “Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things” [Paperback] William McDonough
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_waste
Committed to Connecting the World
Design for recycling rare metals
Make it easy to disassemble products
Keep all materials in constant circulation (a closed loop system)
Avoid the need to extract raw materials by mining which is highly energy intensive, especially for electronics
Ensure a sustainable supply of scarce resources
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Committed to Connecting the World
L.rareMetals
L.rareMetals, draft Recommendation of
a method to provide recycling information of rare metals in ICT products
Scope
recycling procedure for rare metals
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Reduce cost
Reduce risks (e.g stranded assets)
Any GHG savings can be multiplied worldwide across the whole industry
Can be used in procurement to help specify what is required
Ensuring you are not asking for an expensive ‘special’
WP3/5 Technical Session - Nov 25, 2010
Committed to Connecting the World
Benefits of ‘Green’ Standards
Provides purchasers with a readily available tool for sustainable procurement
No need to start from scratch
Examples of international standards bodies in this area
WRI, ISO, ITU-T, ETSI, EPEAT/IEEE
Makes (sustainability)
requirements universal
Committed to Connecting the World
Rare Metal Recycling and
Global Warming
Recycling and reprocessing reduces the fossil fuel energy needed to build a new product
A closed loop system is needed then
Quantity of raw materials needed in a product is reduced
Mining energy is reduced
Embodiment energy is reduced
CO2 emissions are reduced
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Committed to Connecting the World
Your contributions are invited.