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  • G E C W O R K I N G P A P E R S E R I E S

    Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining

    Secondary School Teachers and Principals

    in Sub-Saharan Africa

    2005

    S E C O N D A R Y E D U C A T I O N I N A F R I C A ( S E I A )

    T H E M A T I C S T U D Y # 4

    F U N D E D B Y T H E I R I S H T R U S T F U N D

    P R E P A R E D B Y T H E W O R L D B A N K T H R O U G H T H E

    A C A D E M Y F O R E D U C A T I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T

    b y A I D A N M U L K E E N

    N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f I r e l a n d , M a y n o o t h

    D A V I D W . C H A P M A N

    J O A N G . D E J A E G H E R E

    U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a

    w i t h E L I Z A B E T H L E U

    K A R E N B R Y N E R

    A c a d e m y f o r E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t

    A E D G L O B A L E D U C A T I O N C E N T E R

    A C A D E M Y F O R E D U C A T I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T

    2 0 0 5 / # 3

    THE WORLD BANK

  • About the AED Global Education Center

    About the Academy for Educational Development

    The AED Global Education Center (GEC) seeks to improve the economic livelihood, social well-being, and civic empowerment of the poor through education and training. The Center is a leader in increasing access to and improving the quality of education worldwide for children, youth, and adults.

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit organization committed to solving critical social problems and building the capacity of individuals, communities, and institutions to become more self-sufficient. AED works in all the major areas of human development, with a focus on improving education, health, and economic opportunities for the least advantaged in the United States and developing countries throughout the world.

    GEC Working Paper Series 2005/#3 ISBN# 0-89492-018-9

  • Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in

    Sub-Saharan Africa

    Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA) Thematic Study #4 Funded by the Irish Trust Fund

    Prepared for the World Bank through the Academy for Educational Development

    by Aidan Mulkeen

    National University of Ireland, Maynooth

    David W. Chapman Joan G. DeJaeghere

    University of Minnesota

    with Elizabeth Leu Karen Bryner

    Academy for Educational Development

    2005

  • Academy for Educational Development (AED) Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development is an indepen- dent, nonprofit organization committed to solving critical social problems and building the capacity of individuals, communities, and institutions to become more self-sufficient. AED works in all the major areas of human development, with a focus on improving education, health, and economic opportunities for the least advantaged in the United States and developing countries throughout the world.

    The Academy for Educational Development Global Education Center is a leader in increasing access and improving the quality of education for children, youth, and adults. Through education and training, we seek to improve the livelihood, social welfare, and civic empowerment of the poor so they may participate in and benefit from economic and social develop- ment in their countries. Over the past 40 years, the AED Global Education Center has worked in 50 countries in all regions of the world.

    Global Education Center

    Copyright: AED Global Education Center

    Working Paper Series 2005/#3

    ISBN# 0-89492-018-9

  • ■ Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    ■ Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v

    ■ 1 . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    ■ 2 . Review of the Literature on Secondary Teacher and Principal Recruitment, Retention, and Retraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 .1 . Introduction to the Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 .2 . Teacher Supply and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 .3 . Teacher Recruitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 .4 . Teacher Retention and Attrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2 .5 . Teacher Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2 .6 . Teacher Remuneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2 .7 . Teacher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2 .8 . Teaching as a Career: Morale, Development, and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2 .9 . Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2 .10 . Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2 .11 . School Leaders: Principals and Head Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2 .12 . Summary of Findings from the Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    ■ 3 . Field Study of Secondary Teachers, Principals, and Decision Makers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3 .1 . Introduction to the Field Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3 .2 . Recruitment and Deployment of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3 .3 . Conditions of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3 .4 . Teacher Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 .5 . Teacher Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 .6 . Recruitment and Training of Principals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3 .7 . Special Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3 .8 . Summary of Findings from the Field Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    ■ 4 . Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4 .1 . Recommendations for Strengthening the Quality of Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4 .2 . Recommendations for Strengthening the Quality of Principals (Head Teachers) . . . . . 57 4 .3 . Recommendations for Action on Critical Crosscutting Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4 .4 . Recommendations for Further Research on Secondary Teachers and Principals . . . . . 58

    Contents

  • Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ii

    ■ References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    ■ Tables Table 2.1: Sub-Saharan Africa: School age population data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 2.2: Transition from primary to secondy education (in percentages) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 2.3: Duration in years of primary and secondary general education for selected Sub-Saharan African countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 2.4: Secondary teacher projections in 2005, selected countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 2.5: Qualifications of secondary teachers in Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 2.6: Teacher mortality rates by marital stat