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  • Real-time Gravimetric Personal Monitoring of Respirable DustQMIHS Conference 16 August 2016

  • Sampling methodology largely unchanged since the 1960s

    Use of pump, cyclone, and filter which is removed from site and weighed

    Still the standard for sampling today

    Technology has advanced all around us, but has lagged in this field

    HistoryRespirable Dust Sampling

    2008

    1973

  • Overview

    Technology

    Anglos Approach

    Future Developments

  • Principles of Operation

    Governed by AS2985-2009 (originated in 1987)

    Sample Acquisition and Treatment

    Condition the filter

    Pre-weigh filter with five-place microbalance

    Collect sample at 2.2 L/min

    Place sampler or filter in a pre-labelled dust-free container

    Filters handled only by trained/competent/reliable person

    Condition the filter

    Post-weigh sample with five-place microbalance

    Pros

    Proven, and is the standard

    Cons

    Wait time for results can be days to weeks

    Potential for contamination of samples (e.g. transport/handling)

    TechnologyGravimetric Sampling 1973

  • Principles of Operation

    Illuminate aerosol passing through a defined volume

    Detect total light scattered by the particles in the volume

    Sample Acquisition and Treatment

    Most sample passively dust deposition

    Factory calibrated to specific particle properties

    Readings compared to the mass of the calibrated sample to provide an inferredmass

    Must calibrate to site-specific coal properties

    Pros

    Lightweight, precise, fast, inexpensive

    Indicate relative or approximate concentrations

    Cons

    Accuracy varies significantly based on agglomeration, refractivity, humidity, etc.

    Not a gravimetric instrument

    Not compliant with any Australian standard for aerosol sampling

    TechnologyLight Scattering Photometry 1973

    golf

    43 mm

    45.9 g

    ping-pong

    40 mm

    2.7 g

  • Principles of Operation

    Samples collected on filter positioned on the end of an oscillating hollow tube

    Direct relationship between oscillation frequency and mass

    Sample Acquisition and Treatment

    Active sampling at 2.2 L/min

    Cyclone separates coarse particles

    Direct, gravimetric measurement of respirable dust

    Pros

    Precise, accurate, fast

    Indicate absolute dust concentrations

    Mandated means of monitoring by MSHA in USA

    Technology founded on principles within AS3580

    Cons

    No units with AS/NZ Intrinsically Safe certification

    TechnologyTapered Element Oscillating Microbalance 1973

  • TechnologyThermoScientifics PDM3700 TEOM Unit 1973

    What Anglo Recognised in the PDM3700

    Immediate exposure information for faster decision-making

    Continuous monitoring for enhanced sampling detail

    Improved data analysis capabilities

    Accuracy to give coal mine workers confidence

  • TechnologyThermoScientific PDM3700 TEOM Unit 1973

    Dust card available after download

    Output screen on unit

  • Overview

    Technology

    Anglos Approach

    Future Developments

  • Introduction

    First and only units ever purchased in Australia

    Initially introduced at Moranbah North Mine to prove capability

    Units for Grasstree and Grosvenor purchased in quick succession

    Currently 12 units in service

    Implementation

    Supplement to legislated gravimetric personal sampling regime

    Launch of site-wide sampling roster

    Including Secondary Support, Ventilation, Conveyors, Shotcreting, etc.

    Involvement

    Coal Mine Workers

    Positive feedback, requests for data

    Inspectorate

    Obtaining buy-in

    Providing more information with the same accuracy, faster

    Anglos ApproachIntegration of Units 1973

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    PDM3700 Data vs Shearer Position (Grasstree Mine)Exposure Limit 15 Min Conc Shearer Position

    How do we benefit from the

    data?Operators role?

    Operators

    position?

    Exceptional

    events?

  • Anglos ApproachBenefits 1973

    16/08/2016 Longwall Operator 1.1 mg/m3Which is more

    useful?

  • Coal Mine Workers Exposure information continuously available

    Operators have control over exposure; can modify positioning, instigate task-rotation, adjust ventilation

    No waiting for results to come back in days/weeks

    Exceedance interviews more meaningful

    Administration/Engineering

    Identification of dust contributions from activities (e.g. secondary support, hosing the face, maingate roof support advance, etc.)

    Creation of dust maps to indicate optimum operator positioning

    Supplementation to legislated gravimetric personal sampling regime

    Determination of dust source magnitudes (i.e. static monitoring)

    Modifications to equipment design

    Evaluation of dust mitigation controls

    Attention to integrity of all sampling methods

    Anglos ApproachBenefits 1973

  • Overview

    Technology

    Anglos Approach

    Future Developments

  • Data Reliability Undertaking further data capture to align with current standard gravimetric sampling

    AS/NZ Intrinsically Safe Certification Vigorously requesting provisions be made for unrestricted usage

    Feedback to ThermoScientific for Next Generation Functionality and capability

    Continue to lead the industry in our approach to occupational health and dust monitoring

    Future DevelopmentsFor Anglo American 1973

  • Thank You

  • Media: Slide 2: Coal Miner ThermoFisher Scientific (2016). Respirable Coal Dust Monitoring [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from: email.

    Slide 4: Mettler Toledo XS-105 DU Mettler-Toledo International Inc. (2016). Retrieved from: http://www.mt.com.

    Slide 5: Principle of Nephelometer Grimm Technologies, Inc. Retrieved from: http://dustmonitor.com/Environmental/365_system.htm.

    Slide 6: Video of TEOM Principle Lear Siegler Australasia (2015). Retrieved from: email c/o Peter Phaedonos.

    Slide 7: PDM3700 ThermoFisher Scientific (2016). Respirable Coal Dust Monitoring [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from: email.

    Slide 8: PDM3700 Screenshots MSHA Course of Instruction (2016). Retrieved from: http://arlweb.msha.gov/training/programs-courses/

    Slide 10: PDM3700 on Hip ThermoFisher Scientific (2016). Respirable Coal Dust Monitoring [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from: email.

    Content:Standards Australia. (2009). Workplace atmospheres Method for sampling and gravimetric determination of respirable dust (AS 2985

    2009). Sydney, NSW. Standards Australia Limited.

    Standards Australia. (2008). Methods for sampling and analysis of ambient air Method 9.8: Determination of suspended particulate matter PM10 continuous direct mass method using a tapered element oscillating microbalance analyser (AS 3580 2008). Sydney, NSW. Standards Australia Limited.

    References1973

    http://www.mt.com/http://dustmonitor.com/Environmental/365_system.htmhttp://arlweb.msha.gov/training/programs-courses/