Ramjanmabhoomi court verdict

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    30 September 2010 Last updated at 14:58 GMT ; B B C News

    Ayodhya judgement: key excerptsAn Indian court has ruled that a disputed holy site in Ayodhya should be splitbetween Hindus and Muslims . Hindus believe the site is the birthplace of one of their most revered deities, Lord Ram, but Muslims say they have worshipped therefor generations.

    The three judges, two Hindu and one Muslim, were divided on whether a Hindutemple had been demolished to build a mosque on the site and on whether themosque was legitimate, according to Muslim tenets, but in a majority verdict, theygave control of the main disputed section to Hindus.Continue reading the main story

    Related stories Verdict divides India holy site Has India's flashpoint moved on? Q&A: The Ayodhya dispute

    Here are key excerpts from the summary of the court's ruling:

    "The disputed site is the birth place of Lord Ram.

    "The disputed building was constructed by Babur, the year is not certain but it wasbuilt against the tenets of Islam. Thus, it cannot have the character of a mosque.

    "The disputed structure was constructed on the site of old structure after demolitionof the same. The Archaeological Survey of India has proved that the structurewas a massive Hindu religious structure.

    "It is established that the property in suit is the site of Janm Bhumi [birthplace] of Ram Chandra Ji and Hindus in general had the right to worship Charan [Lord Ram'sslippers], Sita Rasoi [Goddess Sita's kitchen], other idols and other object of worship existed upon the property in suit. It is also established that Hindus havebeen worshipping the place in dispute as Janm Sthan, ie a birthplace as deity andvisiting it as a sacred place of pilgrimage as of right since time immemorial.

    "After the construction of the disputed structure it is proved the deities wereinstalled inside the disputed structure on 22/23 Dec 1949.

    "It is also proved that the outer courtyard was in exclusive possession of Hindusand they were worshipping throughout and in the inner courtyard (in the disputedstructure) they were also worshipping."It is also established that the disputed structure cannot be treated as a mosque asit came into existence against the tenets of Islam.

    "Accordingly, all the three sets of parties - ie Muslims, Hindus and Nirmohi Akhara[a Hindu sect] - are declared joint title holders of the property/premises indispute... to the extent of one third share each for using and managing the samefor worshipping. A preliminary decree to this effect is passed.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11433481http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11435240http://rjbm.nic.in/http://asi.nic.in/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11433481http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11435240http://rjbm.nic.in/http://asi.nic.in/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11441890
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    "However, it is further declared that the portion below the central dome where atpresent the idol is kept in makeshift temple will be allotted to Hindus in finaldecree.

    "It is further directed that Nirmohi Akhara will be allotted share including that partwhich is shown by the words Ram Chabutra [Ram's square] and Sita Rasoi [on a

    map of the site]."It is further clarified that even though all the three parties are declared to haveone third share each, however if while allotting exact portions some minoradjustment in the share is to be made then the same will be made and theadversely affected party may be compensated by allotting some portion of theadjoining land which has been acquired by the central government.

    "The parties are at liberty to file their suggestions for actual partition by metes andbounds within three months.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30 September 2010 Last updated at 16:35 GMT

    Ayodhya verdict: Indian holy site'to be divided'

    Some Hindu groups celebrated after the verdict

    A court in India has said that a disputed holy site in Ayodhya should be splitbetween Hindus and Muslims, but both sides plan to appeal.

    In a majority verdict, judges gave control of the main disputed section, where amosque was torn down in 1992, to Hindus.

    Other parts of the site will be controlled by Muslims and a Hindu sect.The destruction of the mosque by Hindu extremists led to widespread rioting inwhich some 2,000 people died.Continue reading the main story

    Related stories Has India's flashpoint moved on? Q&A: The Ayodhya dispute

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11433481http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11435240http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11433481http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11435240
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    Ayodhya judgement: key excerpts

    It was some of the worst religious violence since the partition of India in 1947.

    Officials urged both sides to remain calm and respect the Allahabad High Court'sverdict.

    Hindus claim the site of the Babri Masjid is the birthplace of their deity, Ram, andwant to build a temple there.

    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has appealed for calm. In a statement, he said:"My appeal to all sections of the people is to maintain peace and tranquility and toshow respect for all religions and religious beliefs in the highest traditions of Indianculture."

    The court ruled that the site should be split, with the Muslim community gettingcontrol of a third, Hindus another third and the remainder going to a minority Hindusect, Nirmohi Akhara, which was one of the early litigants in the case.Continue reading the main story

    Long-running Ayodhya dispute Centres on land 130ft (40m) x 90ft (27m) where mosque stood Court cases over the issue date back to 1949 - so far 18 judges have heard

    the case 1992 report blamed Hindu nationalist politicians for role in the mosque

    demolition Key issue is whether the temple was demolished on the orders of Mughal

    emperor Babur in 1528 Other questions are whether the mosque was built according to Islamic law

    and whether idols were put inside it by Hindus in 1949 Timeline: Ayodhya holy site crisis Ayodhya verdict: Indian reaction

    It said that the current status of the site should continue for the next three monthsto allow the land to be peacefully measured and divided.

    The Hindus will keep the area where a small tent-shrine to Ram has been erected,lawyers said.

    "The majority ruled that the location of the makeshift temple is the birthplace of Ram, and this spot cannot be shifted," said Ravi Shankar Prasad, a lawyer for oneof the parties to the suit.

    'No-one's victory' Both Hindu and Muslim lawyers say they will appeal against the ruling in the 60-year-old case to the Supreme Court, which is likely to delay a final decision stillfurther.

    "We have to study the judgement in details," said Zafaryab Jilani, lawyer for the AllIndia Muslim Personal Law Board.Continue reading the main story

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11443110http://rjbm.nic.in/http://rjbm.nic.in/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11436552http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11446609http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11443110http://rjbm.nic.in/http://rjbm.nic.in/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11436552http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11446609
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    Analysis

    Sanjoy Majumder BBC News, Ayodhya

    Ayodhya is calm after the verdict was delivered. There is still a heavy securitypresence. Police armed with automatic rifles and wearing riot gear can be seeneverywhere. They are asking everyone to stay indoors, remain calm and not reactto the verdict.

    Many people are standing on their balconies or the roofs of their homes, taking inthe scene. Some flash a victory sign but otherwise the mood is subdued.

    The disputed site is heavily guarded, its entrance behind barricades. Theserestrictions will stay in place since the legal battle is still not over. But many peoplehere say they want to move on and above all want peace.

    "It's an 8,500-page order. The court has said a status quo will be maintained at thesite for three months so we have time to appeal in the Supreme Court."

    He told the BBC: "We hope peace and tranquility will be maintained."

    The head of the right-wing Hindu group Rashtriya Samajsevak Sangh, MohanBhagwat, said: "It is no-one's victory, no-one's defeat.

    "The temple for Lord Ram should be built; now everyone should work unitedly toensure that the temple is built at the site."

    Nearly 200,000 security personnel were deployed across northern India to quell anyunrest in the wake of the verdict.

    However, there have been no reports of violence so far.

    Some Muslims have given a cautious welcome to the judgement, suggesting itcould begin a process of reconciliation, says the BBC's Mike Wooldridge in Delhi.

    Correspondents say the Ayodhya ruling could not have come at a worse time forthe authorities - they already have their hands full dealing with securitypreparations for the Delhi Commonwealth Games which begin on Sunday.

    However, the BBC's Soutik Biswas in Delhi says the verdict is a test of India'ssecular identity and much has changed in the country since the mosque wasdestroyed in 1992

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