Ramboll OffshoreBook

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This book describe about oil and gas offshore engineering.It useful to understand basics offshore engineering.

Transcript of Ramboll OffshoreBook

  • OffshoreBook

    An introduction to the o shore industry

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  • 3OffshoreBook

    Offshore Center Danmark

    OffshoreBook

    January 2008

    Editor: Morten Holmager mh@offshorecenter.dk

    Graphic production: Jan C Design & Kommunikation

    Preface

    OffshoreBook serves as an introduction to the offshore industry. Through 15 chapters, the offshore industry is presented at a basic level, suitable for everybody.

    The target group is new employees, students and employees in need for an overview or insight into specialities different from their own.

    The main focus of OffshoreBook is oil and gas, but also covered is offshore wind and wave and tidal energy.

    OffshoreBook is mainly focused on Danish and North Sea conditions but is also suitable for off-shore industries based elsewhere.

    OffshoreBook is edited by Offshore Center Dan-mark in collaboration with external editors. Offshore Center Danmark wish to thank all of our members who have contributed to the book and especially those who have helped in the editing work including, but not limited to: Ramboll Oil & Gas, COWI, DONG Energy, GEUS, the Danish Energy Authority, Aalborg University Esbjerg, the University of Southern Denmark and the techni-cal school in Esbjerg - EUC Vest.

    We hope that you will enjoy reading our book, which has been published to mark the 5th year anniversary of Offshore Center Danmark.

    The copyright of this book vests by Offshore Center Danmark. All rights reserved.

    The information contained herein is the property of above and is supplied without liability for errors or omissions. No part may be reproduced or used except as authorised by contract or other written permission.

    This book has solely been made possible by fi nancial support from Offshore Center Danmark and its members represen-ting 165+ Danish companies and institutions working within offshore.

  • 4 OffshoreBook

    Content

    Chapter 1: Basic Information about Oil and GasChapter 2: Reservoir (Geology and Exploration)Chapter 3: Drilling and CompletionChapter 4: Offshore StructuresChapter 5: Production of Oil and GasChapter 6: PipelinesChapter 7: Oil and Gas Activities in the North SeaChapter 8: Oil and Gas Production in DenmarkChapter 9: DownstreamChapter 10: Oil Logistics and SupplyChapter 11: DecommissioningChapter 12: HSEQChapter 13: Offshore WindChapter 14: Wave and TidalChapter 15: Education and Training in Denmark

    1 - Basic Information about Oil and Gas

    1-1 Overview ......................................................................................9

    1-1-1 What is Crude Oil? .......................................................................9

    1-1-2 What is Natural Gas? ..................................................................10

    1-2 Formation of Oil and Gas ........................................................11

    1-2-1 How are Oil and Gas formed? ....................................................11

    1-2-2 Where do Crude Oil and Natural Gas come from? ....................11

    1-2-3 Natural Gas under the Earth .......................................................13

    1-2-4 Migration of Oil and Gas............................................................13

    1-3 Oil and Gas Characteristics .....................................................14

    1-3-1 Chemical Composition of Oil .....................................................14

    1-3-2 Main Constituents of Natural Gas ..............................................15

    1-3-3 Other Constituents of Natural Gas (Impurities) .........................15

    1-3-4 Types of Natural Gas ..................................................................16

    1-4 Oil and Gas Reserves ................................................................16

    1-4-1 Oil Reserves ...............................................................................16

    1-4-2 World Oil Reserves .....................................................................17

    1-4-3 North Sea Oil .............................................................................17

    1-4-3-1 North Sea Oil Licensing .............................................................18

    1-4-3-2 Reserves and Production in the North Sea .................................18

    1-4-3-3 Future Production .......................................................................18

    1-4-4 World Gas Reserves ....................................................................19

    1-4-5 North Sea Gas ............................................................................19

    2 - Reservoir - Geology and Exploration2-1 What is an Oil and Natural Gas Reservoir? ..........................21

    2-2 Earth Movements......................................................................22

    2-3 Geology ......................................................................................22

    2-3-1 Sediment Maturation ..................................................................22

    2-3-2 Reservoir Rock ...........................................................................22

    2-3-3 Traps ...........................................................................................23

    2-3-4 Seal/Trap Rock ...........................................................................23

    2-3-5 Measuring the Properties of Rocks ............................................24

    2-4 Looking for Oil and Gas ..........................................................24

    2-5 Finding Oil ................................................................................25

    2-6 Exploration Methods ................................................................25

    2-7 Reserve Types ............................................................................26

    2-7-1 Proved Reserves .........................................................................26

    2-7-2 Unproved Reserves .....................................................................26

    2-7-2-1 Probable Reserves ......................................................................26

    2-7-2-2 Possible Reserves .......................................................................26

  • 5OffshoreBook

    3 - Drilling Operations

    3-1 Overview ...................................................................................27

    3-1-1 Drilling .......................................................................................27

    3-1-2 Completion .................................................................................27

    3-1-3 Production ..................................................................................28

    3-1-4 Abandonment .............................................................................28

    3-2 Types of Wells ............................................................................28

    3-3 Well Drilling ..............................................................................29

    3-3-1 Preparing to drill .........................................................................29

    3-3-2 Setting Up the Rig ......................................................................29

    3-3-3 Drilling .......................................................................................31

    3-3-4 Drilling Bits ................................................................................33

    3-3-5 Logging while Drilling ...............................................................33

    3-3-6 Drilling Mud ...............................................................................33

    3-3-7 Offshore Chemicals. ...................................................................34

    3-3-8 Horizontal Drilling .....................................................................34

    3-4 Well Completion .......................................................................35

    3-4-1 Conducting Drill Stem Test ........................................................35

    3-4-2 Setting Production Casing ..........................................................35

    3-4-3 Installing Production Tubing ......................................................35

    3-4-4 Starting Production Flow ............................................................36

    3-4-5 Servicing .....................................................................................36

    3-4-5-1 Transporting Rig and Rigging Up ..............................................36

    3-4-5-2 General Servicing .......................................................................36

    3-4-5-3 Special Services ..........................................................................36

    3-4-5-4 Workover.....................................................................................36

    3-5 Oil Extraction............................................................................37

    4 - Offshore Structures

    4-1 Overview ....................................................................................39

    4-2 Platform Types ..........................................................................40

    4-2-1 Stationary Platforms ...................................................................40

    4-2-1-1 Jacket Platform