Radioactive Stents

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Radioactive Stents. Production and History. Comparison of IVUS data Average data of 157 radioactive und 140 non radioactive stents. Stent. Stent. remodeling. neointima. Plaque [mm 2 ]. „Edge Effekt“. In early days. 1991Fischell: US-Patent: Radioactive Stent - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Radioactive StentsProduction and History

  • StentStentremodelingneointimaPlaque [mm2]Comparison of IVUS data Average data of 157 radioactive und 140 non radioactive stents

  • Edge Effekt

  • In early days1991Fischell: US-Patent: Radioactive Stent1992Hehrlein, Heidelberg wanted radioactive Stents -> animal trials1994Liermann, FrankfurtTreatment of peripheral arteries (legs) 192Ir Afterloader1995Connado, Venezuela 192Ir Afterloader (manuel)

  • Radioactive Stent in Rabbits 55Co... left32P right

  • Methods of Activation

  • Radioisotope1 day < halflife < 3 WeeksSuitable radiation for Brachytherapy with stentsRange about 2-5 mmg-radiation of low energyb- radiation of high energyno a-radiation (does not reach target volume, too much damage in the vicinity)No deeply penetration g-radiation (health physics problems)

  • Phosphorous -32

  • Heavy Ion Implantation

  • Ion SourceAccelerationMass separationTarget M=31M=32

  • ECRIS magnetic bottle xyz

  • ECRIS-radial Confinement by HexapoleNSxyz

  • Precursor of Plasma is GasRed Phosphorous sublimates at about 440C (ugh !) gaseous compound: PH3 (Phosphine)Phosphine is very poisonousMAK = 0,1 ml/m = 1/10 threshold for smelling (Garlik)Radio toxicity Inhalation von 1 m Air (32P/31P) = 1/1000 results in effective dose > 5 Sv which corresponds to LD50 (ugh , really!)So, lets make only that much Phosphine at a time, so that the ion source is just filled. (0,5l at 10-4mbar)H + P PH or. H+ + P PH+ etc. up to PH3

  • ECRIS with two stage extraction and plasma chamber made of glass30 kV60 kV

  • Overview of ion implanter

  • Mass Spectrum16O231PH28SID214N2D212C16OD232P

  • Irradiation chamber

  • Irradiation

  • Irradiation platform

  • Discharge behaviourca. 3 h

  • Performance of the ion source for 32P

    EfficiencyCa. 20% in main beamTime for discharge3 hours, almost no mixture of fresh with old PhosphorousEmittance (beam spot size)beam < 2 mm at a vertical deflection > 20 mmMaintenances After 1 year Extraction was exchanged due to HV-problemsStabilityUnattended operation over night is no problem

  • Quality control: Measurement of activity distribution

  • Special activity distributions

    Summary

    Summary of scan results Lot # :Lot # M.5023-000502R0-Details for Lot# :Lot # M.5023-000502R0-activity calculationendsends

    stent IDlength [mm]slope [mm]% circf.% max spreadat channel# bad chnlsDate & Time of measurementkBqpass / failcommentsstent ID0 [%]90 [%]180 [%]270 [%]left Bq/mmright peak kBq/mm% activity left/righthot / warmbeam [mm]left [mm]right [mm]Hot end kBq/mmslope kBq / mm^2ramp [mm]right HE [mm]stent idtotal differentialdifferential vers totaltotal micCimicCi / mmmicCi / mm

    120.090.38-1.49.4825/3/00 13:15702.4pass10.890.58-0.05-1.43193.356.90.343.5323.6256.93.6615.544.551701.00.2%6.700.540.48

    220.410.41-6.516.0915/3/00 13:23596.7pass21.06-6.52-0.956.41141.147.30.303.2723.6947.33.0315.594.822596.50.0%5.700.450.47

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    min18.500.32-10%-20%min-10%-10%-10%-10%0.00%NA0.603.0022.503.003.00at time ofon reference datenominal total activity

    max20.500.5210%20%max10%10%10%10%0,5%NA0.805.0024.505.005.00measurement5/25/00 0:005.88

    Operators signatureDateSupervisors signatureDate

    2000-05-042000-05-04Calculation of activity density on Target date

    &L&8file &F sheet &A&C&8page &P of &N&R&8printed on &D at &T

    Date

    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt HZY / Radioaktive Medizinprodukte

    Scanner_SetUp_Log

    0

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    Scanner Setup LogLot # M.5023-000502R

    Analysed with parameter set # 1

    Analysis of raw data file: S00503R2.DAT

    RefactCfacCfac2ActiviDactiv

    3928170.001000

    120 3 , Measurement time in msec ; SPEED (0,1,2,3)

    First measurement : 3. 5.2000 13:15:44

    Last measurement : 3. 5.2000 13:32:11

    Lot # M.5023-000502R

    Stent number in position 1 : 1

    !MS_02_nn_01_nn

    Detector 1 :

    reference2Stent ScannerAllowed RangeMinMaxOutcome

    Activity [kBq]DateValue [kBq]measured[%][kBq][kBq]

    1396.900-01-313-May-002.00.00.0NA

    1396.900-01-313-May-002.00.00.0NA

    Comments:

    Operators signatureDateSupervisor or production lead signatureDate

    2000-05-042000-05-04

    &CScanner Setup Log

    &Lfile: &F&CPage &P&Rprinted on &D at &T

    For Internal use only. This document contains confidential, proprietary information. It may not be copied or reproduced without prior permission.

    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt HZY / Radioaktive Medizinprodukte

    tolerances

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    Table of parameters for scanner macropage1

    contamination cold end