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  • Rachel Carson

    Rachel Carson, 1940 Fish & Wildlife Service employee photo

    Born Rachel Louise Carson May 27, 1907 Springdale, Pennsylvania, U.S.

    Died April 14, 1964 (aged 56) Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.[1]

    Occupation Marine biologist, author and environmentalist

    Alma mater Chatham University, Johns Hopkins University

    Period 1937–1964

    Genre Nature writing

    Subject Marine biology, ecology, pesticides

    Notable works

    The Sea Around Us (1951)  The Edge of the Sea (1955) Silent Spring (1962)

    Rachel Carson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.

    Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full­time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller The Sea Around Us won her a U.S. National Book Award,[2] recognition as a gifted writer, and financial security. Her next book, The Edge of the Sea, and the reissued version of her first book, Under the Sea Wind, were also bestsellers. This sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the depths.

    Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially some problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was the book Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides, and it inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[3] Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter.


    1 Life and work 1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Early career and publications 1.3 Relationship with Dorothy Freeman 1.4 The Edge of the Sea and transition to

    conservation work 1.5 Silent Spring

    1.5.1 Research and writing 1.5.2 Content 1.5.3 Promotion and reception

    1.6 Death 2 Legacy

    2.1 Collected papers and posthumous publications

    2.2 Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA

    2.3 Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rachel-Carson.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Fish_and_Wildlife_Service https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springdale,_Pennsylvania https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_Spring,_Maryland https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_biology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chatham_University https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johns_Hopkins_University https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature_writing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_biology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticides https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sea_Around_Us https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Spring https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_articles https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_biology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_movement https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Spring https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_movement https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Fish_and_Wildlife_Service https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sea_Around_Us https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Book_Award https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Under_the_Sea_Wind https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Spring https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grassroots https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_Medal_of_Freedom https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter

  • Rachel Carson (As Told By EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy)

    Problems playing this file? See media help.

    Carson's childhood home is now preserved as the Rachel Carson Homestead (photo taken November 7, 2009)

    2.3 Criticisms of environmentalism and DDT restrictions

    2.4 Posthumous honors 2.4.1 Centennial events

    3 See also 4 List of works 5 See also 6 References

    6.1 Works cited 7 Further reading 8 External links

    Life and work

    Early life and education

    Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a small family farm near Springdale, Pennsylvania, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh. She was the daughter of Maria Frazier (McLean) and Robert Warden Carson, an insurance salesman.[4] An avid reader, she also spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65­ acre (26 ha) farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first story published at age ten. She especially enjoyed the St. Nicholas Magazine (which carried her first published stories), the works of Beatrix Potter, and the novels of Gene Stratton Porter, and in her teen years, Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad and Robert Louis Stevenson. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school

    through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby Parnassus, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty­five students.[5]

    At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as Chatham University), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement.[6] Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated magna cum laude in 1929. After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.[7]

    After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part­time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with pit vipers and squirrels, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full­time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rachel_Carson_(As_Told_By_EPA_Administrator_Gina_McCarthy).ogg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Media_help https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RachelCarsonHomestead.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson_Homestead https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springdale,_Pennsylvania https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegheny_River https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Nicholas_Magazine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrix_Potter https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_Stratton_Porter https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Melville https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Conrad https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Louis_Stevenson https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parnassus,_Pennsylvania https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chatham_University https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johns_Hopkins_University https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_cum_laude https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_Biological_Laboratory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Pearl https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pit_vipers https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squirrel https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronephros https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Bureau_of_Fisheries

  • Rachel Carson and Bob Hines conducting research off the Atlantic coast in 1952

    Romance Under the Waters. The series of fifty­two seven­minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the Chesapeake Bay, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.[8]

    Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full­ti