QT Chien Luoc C8

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CHNG 8 THIT K CU TRC T CHC & H THNG KIM SOT VAI TR CA CU TRC T CHC PHN CNG THEO CHIU DC PHN CNG THEO CHIU NGANG KT HP V C CH KT HP KIM SOT CHIN LC L G? CC H THNG KIM SOT CHIN LC VN HO T CHC CC H THNG TH LAO KHEN THNG CHIN LC TM TT CHNG V CU HI THO LUN

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KHI QUTThc thi chin lc l cch thc m mt cng ty to ra cc sp t c tnh t chc cho php h theo ui chin lc ca mnh mt cch hu hiu nht. Thit k t chc c ngha l chn cch kt hp c cu t chc v h thng kim sot cng ty c th theo ui chin lc ca mnh mt cch hu hiu - to gi tr v li th cnh tranh bn vng. C cu t chc xc nh cc quan h bo co, cc th tc, nhng hng dn, h thng quyn lc v cc qu trnh ra quyt nh.1 C cu t chc v h thng kim sot mang hai vai tr ch yu: Th nht, phi hp cc hot ng ca cc nhn vin sao cho h lm vic mt cch hiu qu thc thi chin lc lm tng li th cnh tranh v Th hai, ng vin nhn vin, cung cp cho h ng c t c s vt tri v hiu qu, cht lng, s ci tin v p ng khch hng. C cu t chc v kim sot nh hng cch thc x s v xc nh cch thc h s hnh ng trong vic thit lp t chc. Nu mt gim c iu hnh mi mun bit ti sao h phi cn nhiu thi gian v nhiu ngi ra quyt nh trong cng ty; ti sao li thiu s hip tc gia b phn bn hng v ch to; hay ti sao li t c cc ci tin sn phm, th cu tr li h cn phi tm nm chnh trong m hnh c cu t chc, h thng kim sot, v cch thc phi hp, ng vin cc hnh vi ca t chc. V th, mt phn tch v cch thc c cu v kim sot c th dn n nhng thay i bn thn chng v cn ci thin c vic phi hp v ng vin. M hnh t chc tt cho php t chc ci thin kh nng to gi tr v ginh li th cnh tranh. Rt kh pht trin mt c cu t chc c th h tr mt cch hu hiu chin lc ca cng ty. Tnh khng chc chn n cha trong cc mi quan h nhn qu, mi trng cnh tranh nng ng v nn kinh t ton cu thay i nhanh chng chnh l nguyn nhn ch yu gy ra cc kh khn cho s tng thch ca c cu t chc vi chin lc.2 Khi cc yu t ca c cu c thit k ph hp vi cc yu t khc, n s thc y vic thc hin chin lc mt cch hu hiu. Do vy c cu t chc l mt b phn quyt nh ca qu trnh thc thi chin lc hu hiu.3 C cu ca cng ty xc nh cng vic phi lm v lm th no i vi mt chin lc hay cc chin lc nht nh. Nh vy c cu t chc nh hng n cch thc lm vic v ra quyt nh ca cc nh qun tr. Bng vic h tr thc thi chin lc, c cu t chc lin quan n cc qu trnh thc hin cc nhim v ca t chc.4

B. Keats & H. ONeill, 2001, "Organizational structure: Looking through a strategy lens," Handbook of Strategic Management, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 5205422 3

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J. D. Day, 2003, "The value in organization", The McKinsey Quarterly, Number 2: 45 H. Barkema, J. A. C. Baum, & E. A. Mannix, 2002, Management challenges in a new time, Academy of Management Journal, 45: 916930.

4 C. M. Fiol, 2003, "Organizing for knowledge-based competitiveness: About pipelines and rivers", Managing Knowledge for Sustained Competitive Advantage, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 6493

- 236 C cu t chc hu hiu to ra tnh n nh cho cng ty n thc hin thnh cng cc chin lc v duy tr li th cnh tranh hin ti, ng thi cng cung cp tnh linh hot cn thit pht trin cc li th cnh tranh cho chin lc tng lai.5 Ni cch khc, tnh n nh ca c cu cung cp cho cng ty kh nng qun tr cc cng vic hng ngy mt cch kin nh v c th d on trc6, trong khi tnh linh hot ca c cu cung cp cc c hi khai thc cc kh nng cnh tranh v phn b ngun lc cho cc hot ng s nh dng li th cnh tranh ca cng ty n thnh cng trong tng lai.7 Mt cu trc t chc tt phi cho php cng ty khai thc cc li th cnh tranh hin ti trong khi li cho php n pht trin cc li th mi.8 Nhng bin i trong chin lc hin ti ca cng ty hay vic la chn mt chin lc mi cn n nhng thay i c cu t chc. Tuy nhin, cc nghin cu cho thy tnh ca t chc thng cn tr cc n lc thay i t chc, thm ch ngay c khi m hiu sut t chc bao hiu n lc phi thay i c cu.9Trong nghin cu ca mnh, Alfred Chandler thy rng cc t chc thay i c cu ca h ch khi s km hiu qu thc p n phi lm nh vy.10Cc cng ty dng nh thch c cu hin ti v cc mi lin h quen thuc cho n khi hiu sut ca n gim n mc m s thay i l tuyt i cn thit.11 Hn na, cc nh qun tr cp cao s phi kt lun rng c vn trong c cu t chc cng ty (hay trong chin lc ca n), nh th c ngha l cc la chn trc ca h khng phi l tt nht.12 Chnh bi v cc khuynh hng tr tr ny, thay i c cu t chc thng c vin dn n cc c ng khi h khng mun chp nhn hiu sut nh vy na. Mc d tnh ca t chc l c tht, song cng khng t nhiu cng ty thay i trc khi hiu sut gim ng k. Thi hn thch hp thay i c cu khi cc nh qun tr cp cao nhanh chng nhn thc rng c cu hin ti khng to ra s hp tc v nh hng cn thit cng ty thc hin thnh cng cc chin lc ca n.13 C cu ca mt t chc gn con ngi vi cc nhim v v vai tr (phn cng) v ch r cch thc nhng con ngi ny kt hp vi nhau (kt hp). Tuy nhin, c cu t chc khng t n cung cp hay hm cha c ch ng vin con ngi. V th cn c kim sot. Mc ch ca kim sot chin lc l cung cp cho nh qun tr (1) mt cng c ng vin nhn vin lm vic hng ti mc tiu ca t chc, (2) nhn r cc phn hi gip t chc v cc thnh vin ca n thc hin tt.

5 R. D. Ireland, J. G. Covin, & D. F. Kuratko, 2003, "Antecedents, elements and consequences of corporate entrepreneurship as strategy" , Proceedings of the Sixty-third Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, ISSN 1543-8643 6 G. A. Bigley & K. H. Roberts, 2001, "The incident command system: Highreliability organizing for complex and volatile task environments", Academy of Management Journal, 44: 12811299. 7 J. Child & R. M. McGrath, 2001, "Organizations unfettered: Organizational form in an information-intensive economy", Academy of Management Journal, 44: 11351148. 8 T. W. Malnight, 2001, "Emerging structural patterns within multinational corporations: Toward process-based structures, Academy of Management Journal, 44: 11871210 9

B.W. Keats & M. A. Hitt, 1988, "A causal model of linkages among environmental dimensions, macroorganizational characteristics, and performance", Academy of Management Journal, 31: 570598. A. Chandler, 1962, Strategy and Structure, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. J. D. Day, E. Lawson, & K. Leslie, 2003, "When reorganization works", The McKinsey Quarterly, Number 2, 2029. M. Robb, P. Todd, & D. Turnbull, 2003, Untangling underperformance, The McKinsey Quarterly, Number 2, 5259. C. H. Noble, 1999,The eclectic roots of strategy implementation research, Journal of Business Research, 45: 119134.

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- 237 Chng ta c th hnh dung, c cu ging nh mt ci khung, cn kim sot li cung cp cho n cc bp tht, cc gn, dy thn kinh v b cm ng cho php cc nh qun tr iu chnh v chi phi cc hot ng ca n. Trong chng ny, chng ta xem xt cc c cu t chc m ngi qun tr chin lc c th s dng phi hp v ng vin nhn vin. Chng ta xem xt vic s dng cc h thng kim sot kt hp vi c cu t chc kim sot, ng vin v tng thng cho cng ty v cc b phn chc nng. Chng ta cng nghin vic s dng cc c cu t chc v h thng kim sot khc nhau tng ng vi cc chin lc khc nhau. Sau khi c cc chng ny, bn c th hiu cc nguyn tc c bn ng sau vic thit k li c cu t chc v h thng kim sot v bn s c th chn m hnh t chc hp l cho vic thc thi chin lc.

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8.1. VAI TR CA CU TRC T CHC Chin lc ch c th thc thi thng qua c cu t chc, v th, sau khi xy dng chin lc cho cng ty cc nh qun tr phi thc hin ngay bc tip theo, l thit k c cu t chc. Cc hot ng to gi tr ca mi thnh vin t chc s t c ngha tr khi c mt c cu t chc gn con ngi vi cc nhim v v kt ni cc hot ng ca nhng con ngi vo b phn khc nhau. Mi mt chc nng trong t chc cn phi pht trin mt nng lc gy khc bit thng qua mt hot ng to gi tr theo hng tng hiu qu, cht lng, ci tin, v p ng khch hng. Nh vy, mi chc nng cn c trong mt c cu phi c thit k r rng, qua c th chuyn mn ho, pht trin cc k nng, v t nng sut cao hn. Tuy nhin, khi cc chc nng tr nn chuyn mn ho hn, mi b phn li thng theo ui cc mc tiu ring ca mnh mt cch m qung, h nh mt kh nng nhn nhn yu cu truyn thng v phi hp vi cc chc nng khc. V d, cc mc tiu ca R&D l tp trung vo ci tin v thit k sn phm, cc mc tiu ca ch to thng l hng ti hiu qu. mc cho cc hot ng t thn nh vy din ra, cc chc ny s t c ting ni chung vi cc chc nng khc v b l cc c hi to gi tr thng qua cc hot ng phi hp. C cu t chc l phng tin cc nh qun tr c th phi hp cc hot ng gia nhng chc nng hay cc b phn khc nhau nhm khai thc y cc k nng v nng lc ca h. V d theo ui mt chin lc dn o chi ph cng ty phi thit k mt c cu thc y s phi hp cht ch gia cc hot ng ca b phn ch to vi R&D, qua m bo rng cc sn phm ci tin c th c sn xut theo cch thc hiu qu v tin cy. c c li ch t s cng hng gia cc b phn, ngi qun tr phi thit k cc c ch cho php mi b phn c th truyn thng v chia s cc cc k nng v hiu bit ca mnh. Mc tiu ca chng ta trong phn ny l xem xt cc khi c bn ca c cu t chc hiu c cch thc nh hng cc hnh vi ca con ngi, cc chc nng v b phn. 8.1.1. Cc khi ca c cu t chc Cc khi c bn ca c cu t chc l s phn cng v kt hp. S phn cng l cch thc trong cng ty phn b con ngi cc ti nguyn cho cc nhim v ca t chc to gi tr. Ni chung, mc phn cng cng cao nu s cc chc nng hay b phn trong mt t chc cng ln, kh nng chuyn mn ho cao v c k nng ring bit th. V d, cng ty GM vi hn 300 b phn khc nhau v vi v s cc b phn bn hng, R&D, thit k khc nhau, s c mt s phn cng cao hn nhiu so vi cng ty ch to a phng hay mt nh hng. Trong khi quyt nh cch thc phn cng t chc to gi tr v nh qun tr chin lc thc hin hai s la chn: Th nht, phn phi quyn ra quyt nh trong t chc kim sot cc hot ng to gi tr tt nht, gi l cch phn cng theo chiu dc. V d, cc nh qun tr cng ty phi quyt nh giao ph bao nhiu quyn lc c cho cc nh qun tr cp b phn hay chc nng. Th hai, quyt nh phn b con ngi v nhim v cho cc chc nng v cc b phn tng kh nng to gi tr ca h; l cc la chn phn cng theo chiu ngang. V d cc b phn bn hng v marketing nn ring bit hay nn kt hp thnh mt. u l cch thc tt nht phn chia lc

- 239 lng bn hng ti a ho kh nng phc v khch hng ca n, - phn theo khch hng hay theo vng? Kt hp l cch thc m cng ty phi hp con ngi v cc chc nng t c cc nhim v ca t chc. Khi c cc chc nng to gi tr khc bit, h phi theo ui cc mc tiu v mc ch ring. T chc phi to ra c cu sao cho c th phi hp hot ng ca cc chc nng v b phn khc nhau hng h theo ui chin lc. T chc s dng cc c ch kt hp cng nh cc h thng kim sot khc nhau thc y s phi hp v hp tc gia cc chc nng v b phn. T chc cng thit lp cc chun mc, cc gi tr v nn vn