QT Chien Luoc C4

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    CHNG 4TO DNG LI TH CNH TRANH

    THNG QUA CC CHIN LC CHC NNG

    KHI QUT

    T C SVT TRI V HIU QU

    Sn xut v hiu qu: Tnh kinh t v qui m

    Sn xut v hiu qu: Hiu ng hc tp

    Sn xut v hiu qu: ng cong kinh nghim

    Sn xut hiu qu: sn xut linh hot sn xut theo yucu khch hng khi lng ln

    Marketing v hiu qu

    Qun tr vt liu, JIT v hiu qu

    Chin lc R&D v hiu qu

    Chin lc ngun nhn lc v hiu qu

    H thng thng tin, Internet, v hiu qu

    Csh tng v hiu qu

    T C CHT LNG VT TRI

    Khi nim TQMp dng TQM

    T C SCI TIN VT TRI

    T l tht bi cao trong ci tin

    To lp cc kh nng ci tin

    Tm tt: t c s ci tin vt tri

    T C S P NG KHCH HNG VTTRI

    Tp trung vo khch hng

    Tho mn nhu cu khch hng

    Tm tt: t c sp ng khch hng vt tri

    TM TT CHNG V CU HI N TP

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    KHI QUT

    Chng ta tho lun v vai tr trung tm ca hiu qu, cht lng, ci tin, v p ng khchhng trong vic to lp v duy tr mt li th cnh tranh. Bn cht ca cc khi cnh tranh nys hin ln r hn nu, chng ta c th ch ra vai tr ca cc nh qun tr v cch thc ci thinhiu lc ca chng. Cc chin lc cp chc nng l chin lc hng n ci thin hiu lcca cc hot ng c bn trong phm vi cng ty, nh sn xut, marketing, qun tr vt liu,nghin cu v pht trin (R&D), v ngun nhn lc. Mc d mi chin lc cc nng c th tptrung vo mt chc nng nht nh, nhng ci thin thc s hiu lc ca mt khi cnhtranh no cn c s phi hp cht ch gia cc chc nng vi nhau.

    Chng ny nhm mc ch gip bn s hiu r rng v cc hnh ng ca cc nh qun trthc hin cp tc nghip nhm t c s vt tri v hiu qu, cht lng,ci tin,p ngkhch hng.

    4.1.TC SVT TRI VHIU QU.Mt cng ty l mt c my ang chuyn ho cc u vo thnh cc u ra. c cc u ra lhng ho v dch v cng ty phi s dng cc u vo l nhng yu t cbn ca sn xut nhlao ng, t ai, tin vn, k nng qun tr, b quyt cng nghHiu qu ca qu trnhchuyn ha c o bng s lng u ra chia cho s lng u vo. Cng ty cng hiu qu

    khi n s dng cng t cc u vo to ra mt n vu ra, v th, n cn phn u h thpchi ph. Ni cch khc, mt cng ty hiu qu c nng sut cao hn cc i th cnh tranh v do chi ph thp hn.

    4.1.1. Sn xut v hiu qu: Tnh kinh t v qui mTnh kinh t v qui m l vic gim gi thnh n v sn phm lin quan n sn lng ln.Mt nguyn nhn dn n tnh kinh t v qui m d thy nht l kh nng phn b chi ph cnh cho khi lng ln sn phm sn xut. Chi ph cnh l cc chi ph pht sinh sn xutmt sn phm tng ng vi mt mc sn lng; chi ph ny bao gm chi ph mua my mcthit b, chi ph thit t my mc cho mt ln sn xut, chi ph nh xng, chi ph qung cov R&D. V d, Microsoft phi chi ra gn mt t USD pht trin mt phin bn ca hiu

    hnh Windows WINDOWS 2000. Microsoft c tht c tnh kinh t theo qui m mtcch ng k nhphn b cc chi ph cnh lin quan n pht trin hiu hnh mi chomt khi lng bn khng l m n k vng v hiu hnh ny (90% my tnh c nhn trnth gii s dng hiu hnh ca Microsoft). Trong trng hp ca Microsoft, tnh kinh ttheo qui m y ngha, bi v chi ph tng thm (chi ph bin) sn xut ra mt bn copyWindow 2000 l khng ng k (khi mt bn chnh lm xong, cc CD cha hiu hnh chvi cent).

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    Nhiu cng ty cng ngh cao c cu trc chi ph nh vy: chi ph cnh cao nhng chi phbin rt thp. Cc cng ty vin thng b ra hng t USD vo csh tng to dng mngli ca h, nhng s khng tn km g chuyn dch thm mt n v thng tin i qua mngny. Intel b ra xp x 5 t USD xy dng mt nh my mi sn xut b vi x l, nhng

    cng ch cn vi cent l c th sn xut ra mt con chp. Cc cng ty dc phm c th tn kmn 500 triu USD to ra mt loi thuc mi v cng ch cn vi cent sn xut ra cc nv thuc tng thm. Vi tt c cc cng ty nh vy, cha kho ca tnh hiu qu v kh nngsinh li l tng doanh snhanh chngcc chi ph cnh c thphn bcho sn lngsn xut ln v thc hin mt cch ng ktnh kinh tvqui m.

    Nguyn nhn khc em li tnh kinh t v qui m cho cc cng ty sn xut khi lng ln lkh nng phn cng lao ng v chuyn mn ho cao hn. Chuyn mn ho c th xem l ctc ng tch cc n nng sut, bi v n cho php ngi lao ng tch ly k nng tt hntrong vic thc hin mt cng vic c th. V d kinh in v tnh kinh t theo qui m l trnghp mu t T ca Ford. Mu xe t t T ca Ford ra i nm 1923, cng l ln u tin trn

    th gii sn xut t khi lng ln, Ford s dng phng php sn lp rp theo dy chuyntn km. Bng vic a vo s dng cc k thut sn xut dy chuyn, cng ty t cphn cng lao ng su sc hn ( l vic chia nh qu trnh lp rp thnh cc cng vic nhc th lp li) v chuyn mn ho lm tng nng lao ng. Ford cng c th phn b chi phcnh ca vic pht trin mt kiu xe t v vic thit t my mc cho mt sn lng ln.Kt qu ca tnh kinh t ny lm chi ph ch to mt chic t cng ty Ford gim t 3000USD xung cn 900 USD (la nm 1958). Tnh kinh t qui m khng ch lin quan n ccdoanh nghip ch to nh Ford v Dupont, nhiu cng ty dch v cng hng li t vic thchin tnh kinh t ca qui m.

    Hnh 4-1: ng cong chi ph di hn

    Khi lng

    Chiph

    Qui m hiu qu ti thiu

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    Hnh 4-1, ng cong gi thnh n v di hn ca mt cng ty c dng ch L. Khi sn lngvt qu qui m hiu qu ti thiu, vic gim thm chi ph s rt kh khn. Tnh km hiu quca qui m cng c th pht sinh khi xut hin s quan liu trong cc doanh nghip ln, lmtng chi ph qun l cng ty m khng gim gi thnh n v.

    4.1.2. Sn xut v hiu qu: Hiu ng hc tpHiu ng hc tp l sgim chi ph do hc tp, nhn thc v tri nghim trong qu trnh lmvic. V d, do thc hin cng vic vic lp i lp li, ngi lao ng hc c cch thc ttnht thc hin mt cng vic . Ni mt cch khc, nng sut lao ng tng ln theo thigian, v gi thnh n v gim khi cc c nhn hc c cch thc thc hin cc nhim v nhtnh hiu qu nht. Tng t, trong cc nh my mi cc nh qun tr cng tri nghim, hctp, v tm ti theo thi gian tm cch vn hnh hot ng sn xut mi tt nht. V th, chiph sn xut gim do tng nng sut lao ng v qun tr hiu qu.

    Hnh 4-2: HIU QU THEO QUI M V HIU NG HC TP

    Hiu ng hc tp cng trnn c ngha hn khi cc cng vic phc tp v cng nghclp i lp li, nh th c nhiu c hi hc tp hn. Ni cch khc, hiu ng hc tp s c ngha hn trong cc qu trnh lp rp vi 1000 bc cng vic phc tp so vi qu trnh lp rpch c 100 bc cng vic gin n. Mc d hiu ng hc tp thng lin quan vi qu trnhch to, nhng ging nh tnh kinh t v qui m, hiu ng hc tp cng rt quan trng trongnhiu ngnh dch v. V d mt nghin cu ni ting v vic hc tp trong ngnh chm sc sckho cho thy nhng ngi cung cp dch v y t cng c kinh nghim trong mt s th tc

    Chi ph binh qun

    Chi ph binh qun

    Qui m hiu qu

    Hiu ng hc tp

    Sn lng

    Ch

    iph

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    phu thut ph bin, cng c t l t vong thp. iu cho thy rng hiu ng hc tp c tcdng trong phu thut.1Cc tc gi ca nghin cu ny dng dn chng gi vic thitl p cc trung tm mi vng cung cp dch v chm sc y t chuyn mn ho cao. Cctrung tm ny s thc hin nhiu th thc phu thut c th (v d m tim), thay cho cc phng

    m vi s lng t vi t l t vong cao.Nghin cu ng cong chi ph trung bnh di hn ca mt cng ty (Hnh 4-2) cho thy nutnh kinh t v qui m hm mt s di chuyn dc theo ng cong (gi s t A n B), thhiu ng hc tp li hm s dch chuyn ton bng cong i xung (B ti C trong). ngvi mi mc sn lng, c lao ng v qun tr trnn ngy cng hiu qu hn. Tuy nhin, nucng vic khng qu phc tp hiu ng hc tp s bin mt sau mt khong thi gian nht nh.Thc vy, hiu ng hc vic ch thc s quan trng trong thi ku thit lp mt qu trnhmi v s ngng sau hai hay ba nm.2

    Sn xut v hiu qu: ng cong kinh nghim

    ng cong kinh nghim chsgim gi thnh n v mt cch h thng pht sinh sau mt chu kca sn phm.3 Theo khi nim ng cong kinh nghim, gi thnh ch to n v sn phm nichung s gim sau mi ln tch lu sn lng sn xut gp i (sn lng tch lu l tng sn lngsn phm sn xut). u tin mi lin h ny c quan st thy trong ngnh sn xut my bay,mi ln tch lu sn lng khung my bay ln gp i, gi thnh n v gim xung cn 80% so vimc trc .1 Nh vy, chi ph sn xut khung my bay th t ch bng 80% so vi chic th hai,chic th tm ch tn 80% so vi chic th t, chic th 16 li bng 80% chi ph ca chic th tm,c th chi ph n v gim cn 80% sau mt ln tch lu gp i. H qu ca qu trnh ny hnh thnhmi lin h gia chi ph ch to mt n v sn phm v sn lng tch luc biu din trong hnh4-3.

    Hnh 4-3: ng cong kinh nghim

    1 H.Luft, J.bunker, A. Enthoven, 1979, "Should Operations Be Regionized ",New Englanf Journal, 3001; pp 1364-13692 G.Hall, S. Howell, 1985, "The Experience Curve From Economist's Perspective," Strategic Management Journal6 pp 1997-2123 G.Hall, S. Howell, 1985, "The Experience Curve From Economist's Perspective," Strategic Management Journal6

    Sn lng tch lu

    Chiphn

    v

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    Tnh kinh t ca qui m v hiu ng hc tp chnh l nn tng ca ng cong kinh nghim.

    Ni mt cch n gin, khi mt cng ty tng sn lng tch lu theo thi gian n c th thchin c tnh kinh t v qui m (ging nh l tng khi lng) v hiu ng hc tp. Kt qu lgi thnh n v gim xung theo s tng ln ca sn lng tch lu.

    ngha chin lc ca ng cong kinh nghim rt r rng. N ch ra rng vi vic tng khilng sn phm v th phn cng sem li li th v chi ph thng qua cnh tranh. Nh vy,do cng ty A trong hnh 4-3 dch chuyn nhanh hn xung phn di ca ng cong kinhnghim m c mt li th chi ph r rng so vi cng ty B. Quan nim ny c l l quantrng nht i vi nhng ngnh m qu trnh sn xut khi lng ln cc sn phm tiu chun(v d ch to chp bn dn).Nu mt cng ty mun trnn hiu qu hn v c c li thchiph thp, n phi cgng trt tht nhanh xung phn di ca ng cong kinh nghim. iu

    ny c ngha l to ra cc iu kin thun li cho tnh hiu qu v qui m trc c khi cng tyc nhu cu v theo ui mt cch tch cc s gim thp chi ph bng hiu ng hc tp. Cng tycng c th cn phi chp nhn mt chin lc marketing c tnh tn cng, ct gim gi mtcch tch cc, nhn mnh vo cc xc tin bn hng to ra nhu cu, nh c th tch lusn lng nhanh nht c thc. Mt khi dch chuyn nhanh chng xung pha di cang cong kinh nghim, bng u th vt tri v hiu qu, cng ty dng nh s c mt lith v chi ph vi cc i th cnh tranh. V d, Intel th s dng chin thut dch chuyn nhanhchng xung pha di ca ng cong kinh nghim ginh c u th chi ph so vi cci th ca n trong sn xut b vi x l; v y cng l nguyn nhn gip Matsushita trthnh ngi ln t th trng bng video VHF.

    Tuy nhin, cng ty dch chuyn xung pha di ca ng cong kinh nghim xa nht khngc t mn v li th chi ph ca