QT Chien Luoc C3

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    CHNG 3.PHN TCH BN TRONG

    Cng ty ang thc hin chin lc hinti nh th no?Cc sc mnh v im yuBn cht li th cnh tranhNgun gc ca li th cnh tranh bnvngCc ngun lc v kh nng tim tng

    Phn tch tnh lu bn chin ca li thcnh tranhChui gi tr, v s sng to gi trKhai thc ngoi lcTi sao cc cng ty tht biDuy tr li th cnh tranhT p trung vo vic to l p cc khi lith cnh tranhCi thin lin tc th ch v hc hiTheo di s thc hin tt nht ca ngnh

    v s dng vic nh chunVt qua s tr trTM TT CHNG V N TP

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    KHI QUT

    Trong chng 2, chng ta tho lun v cc yu t ca mi trng bn ngoi nhm xc nh tnhhp dn ca mt ngnh, v chng ta c gng gii thch l do khin cho mt s ngnh ny li sinh

    li hn mt s ngnh khc thng qua cu trc ngnh. Tuy nhin, cu trc ngnh khng phi l lclng duy nht tc ng ln li nhun ca cng ty. Trong bt k ngnh no cng c mt s cng tyny sinh li cao hn nhng cng ty khc. V d, trong ngnh t ton cu Toyota lun lm tt hnGeneral Motor trong sut 20 nm gn y. Trong ngnh thp, Nuco lun thc hin tt hn U.SSteel. Trong ngnh bn l qun o M Gap lun lm tt hn JC Penneys, cn trn th trng thitb mng Internet, h thng Cisco lun lm tt hn cc i th cnh tranh nh Bay Network v 3M.Do , vn t ra l ti sao trong mt ngnh c th cc cng ty ny li lm tt hn cc cng tykhc? iu g l nn tng ca cc li th cnh tranh?

    Trong chng ny, chng ta s xem xt li v th ca cng ty trn gc s thc hin chin lchin ti, phn tch cc biu hin b ngoi v sc mnh v im yu ca n. Sau chng ta s dn

    i su l gii v li th cnh tranh.Li th cnh tranh c hiu nh l tng hp ca cc khi chnh ci tin, hiu qu, cht lng vp ng khch hng. Thot u, chng ta c tm kim bn trong ca mt t chc cc sc mnh vim yu xc nh hiu qu, nng lc ci tin, cht lng sn phm, v p ng khch hng ca n.Su hn na, chng ta tm n cc ht nhn pht trin cc khi cnh tranh, chnh l ccngun lc, cc nng lc, kh nng ca cng ty.

    Tm li, trong chng ny chng ta cn hiu v bn cht ca li th cnh tranh trn cc kha cnhnh: bng cch no mt cng ty t n mt li th cnh tranh bng hiu qu, ci tin, cht lng,v p ng khch hng vt tri? Nhn t no nh hng n tnh lu bn ca li th cnh tranh?Ti sao cc cng ty thnh cng li mt i li th cnh tranh ca mnh? Lm th no cc cng tyc th trnh c tht bi v duy tr li th cnh tranh theo thi gian?

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    3.1.PHN TCH CHIN LC HIN TI

    3.1.1. Cng ty ang thc hin chin lc hin ti nhth no?nh gi cng ty ang thc hin chin lc hin ti tt n mc no, nh qun tr phi bt ut chin lc m cng ty ang theo ui. Trc ht, cn phi nm c cch tip cn chin lcca cng ty, hang mun tr thnh ngi dn o chi ph, ngi to s khc bit, hay ch l stp trung vo phc v tt mt khe h th trngNh qun tr cng phi tnh n quan nim chinlc ca cng ty trn csphm vi cnh tranh, hiu rng n ang tham gia vo bao nhiu giaion trong chui phn phi sn phm (mt, hai, hay ton b chui), phm vi a l, qui m v cutrc khch hng. Tm hiu cc chin lc chc nng, nh sn xut, ti chnh, marketing, ngunnhn lc, ci tin sn phm nhn thc tt hn chin lc hin ti.

    Hn na, gn y cng ty c th pht ng mt vi dch chuyn chin lc cn thit cho chin

    lc ca n, (ct gim gi, thit k cc mu sn phm mi, qung co thm nhp vo th trngmi) nhm bo m ci thin v th v li th cnh tranh mt cch ti u. Chin lc ang theoui c th cn gn cht hn na bi cc logic ng sau mi dch chuyn cnh tranh v cch tipcn chc nng.

    Mc d c th c nhng nh gi rt tt theo quan im nh tnh (tnh hnh chnh, kin inh, hpl, ph hp vi tnh th), cc bng chng nh lng vn l ch dn tt v s thc hin chin lc.Chng c th nghin cu mt cch nh lng thng qua hiu sut ti chnh chin lc ca cng ty.Cc con s c th ni ln nhiu iu.

    Hai ch s quan trng nht v thc hin chin lc l:

    Cng ty c t c trng thi ti chnh v cc mc tiu chin lc mong mun khng?Cng ty c t c kh nng sinh li trn trung bnh hay khng?

    S thiu ht lin tc trong vic p ng cc mc tiu hiu sut ca cng ty, v hiu sut km ci sovi i th l nhng du hiu cnh bo ng tin cy cho thy chin lc vn hnh km hoc iuhnh chin lc khng tt. Ni chung, nh gi hiu sut ca cng ty c th nhn vo cc duhiu sau:

    Th hng v th phn ca cng ty trong ngnh tng ln, n nh, hay gim xung.

    Li nhun bin ca cng ty tng ln hay gim xung v ln tng i ca n so vi i th.

    Cc khuynh hng v li nhun rng, thu nh p trn vn u t, gi tr kinh t tng thm, v sosnh iu ny vi cc i th cnh tranh.

    Sc mnh ti chnh v nh gi tn dng ca cng ty ang c ci thin hay suy gim.

    Doanh s ca cng ty tng nhanh hn hay chm hn tc tng trng th trng.

    Hnh nh, danh ting ca cng ty trc khch hng.

    Cng ty c c xem nh ngi lnh o v cng ngh, ci tin sn phm, cht lng sn phmhay p ng khch hng hay khng.

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    Cng ty cng mnh cng t phi t vn sa i hon ton chin lc. Nhng hiu sut ti chnhv v th th trng ca cng ty cng yu, cng cn phi t vn vi chin lc hin ti. Hiusut km ni chung l du hiu cnh bo v s yu km ca chin lc hay yu km v thc thi,i khi do c hai.

    3.1.2. Cc sc mnh v im yuMt im mnh l iu m cng ty ang lm tt hay cc c tnh gip n nng cao kh nng cnhtranh. im mnh c th tn ti cc dng sau:

    Mt k nng hay kinh nghim quan trng b quyt ch to vi chi ph thp, b quyt cng ngh,sn xut khng khuyt tt, kinh nghim trong vic cung cp dch v khch hng tt, k nng citin sn phm, cc k nng thng mi sn phm qui m ln, qung co khuyn mi c o.

    Cc ti sn vt cht c gi tr - nh xng hin i, v tr hp dn, d tr ngun lc t nhin, c cstrn ton th gii

    Ti sn ngun nhn lc c gi tr - lc lng lao ng c kh nng v kinh nghim, cng nhn giitrong cc lnh vc then cht, b quyt qun tr, hc tp v hp tc trong ton t chc.

    Ti sn t chc c gi tr - h thng kim sot cht lng, s hu cng ngh, bn quyn, quynkhai thc, s trung thnh ca khch hng, gi tr tn dng

    Ti sn v hnh ng gi hnh nh nhn hiu, danh ting, lng trung thnh cao ca khchhng

    Kh nng cnh tranh thi gian pht trin sn phm v thng mi ha ngn, nng lc ch to,mng li i l, cc nh cung cp mnh,

    Thnh tch hay nh hng t cng ty vo v th c li trn th trng chi ph thp, v th lnh

    o trn th trng, c sn phm tt hn,

    Lin minh hay lin doanh h p tc tham gia lin doanh hay hi p tc vi cc i tc c kinhnghim v kh nng.

    V cbn mt cng ty c xem l thnh cng nu n c cc ngun lc y p ng yucu.

    Mt im yu l iu g m cng ty ang thiu, km ci hay mt iu kin t n vo tnh thbt li. Nhng im yu ni ti ca cng ty c c th biu hin:

    Thiu ht v cc k nng v kinhn nghim cnh tranh quan trng.

    Thiu cc ti sn v hnh, ti sn vt cht, t chc, nhn s, quan trng c tnh cnh tranh.Thiu hay yu v cc kh nng cnh tranh trong cc lnh vc then cht.

    Cc im yu ni b l nhng khim khuyt trong ngun lc ca cng ty. Mt im yu c th gyra hay khng gy ra tn thng cho cng ty, iu cn ty thuc vo mc nh hng trn thtrng, v ty thuc vo vic n c th vt qua bng cc ngun lc v sc mnh ca mnh haykhng.

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    Phn tch sc mnh, im yu, chi, e da (SWOT) c th l phn tch nn tng da trn nguyntc cho rng cc n lc chin lc phi hng n vic to ra s ph hp tt nht gia cc khnng ngun lc ca cng ty v tnh th bn ngoi.

    Song, iu quan trng c th to dng li th cnh tranh, v duy tr n mt cch bn vng chnhl phi hiu r bn cht, ngun gc to ra li th cnh tranh.

    3.2.BN CHT LI THCNH TRANH

    Mt cng ty c xem l c li th cnh tranh khi t l li nhun ca n cao hn t l bnh quntrong ngnh. V cng ty c mt li th cnh tranh bn vng khi n c th duy tr t l li nhuncao trong mt thi gian di. Trong ngnh bch ho M, Wal-mart duy tr mt li th cnhtranh bn b qua hng thp k. iu ny gip n c c t l li nhun cao.

    Hai yu t cbn hnh thnh t l li nhun ca mt cng ty, v do biu th n c li th cnhtranh hay khng, l: lng gi tr m cc khch hng cm nhn v hng ho hay dch v ca

    cng ty, v chi ph sn xut ca n .Gi tr cm nhn ca khch hng l s lu gi trong tm tr ca h v nhng g m h cm thytha mn t sn phm hay dch v ca cng ty. Ni chung, gi tr m khch hng cm nhn v nhgi v sn phm ca cng ty thng cao hn gi m cng ty c thi hi v cc sn phm/dch vca mnh. Theo cc nh kinh t, phn cao hn chnh l thng d ngi tiu dng m khch hngc th ginh c. Cnh tranh ginh git khch hng gia cc cng ty gip khch hng nhnc phn thng d ny. Cnh tranh cng mnh phn thng d ngi tiu dng cng ln. Hn na,cng ty khng th phn on th trng chi tit n mc m n c thi hi mi khch hng mtmc gi phn nh ng n nhng cm nhn ring ca h v gi tr sn phm - iu m cc nhkinh t gi l s bo lu gi ca khch hng. Hai l do ny khin cng ty ch c thi hi mc

    gi thp hn gi tr m khch hng cm nhn v nh gi v sn phm.Cc khi nim ny minh ho bng Hnh 3-1: S hnh thnh gi tr cho khch hng. C th thyrng gi tr ca mt sn phm i vi khch hng l V, gi m cng ty c thi hi cho sn phm di sc p cnh tranh l P, v chi ph sn xut sn phm l C. Bin li nhun ca cng ty l P-C trong khi khch hng sc mt thng d V-P. Cng ty to ra mt li nhun v P>C, v tl li nhun cng ln nu C cng nh tng i so vi P. Nhrng s chnh lch gia V v P mtphn c xc nh bi cng ca sc p cnh tranh trn th trng. Cng sc p cnhtranh cng thp gi c thi hi cng cao hn mt cch tng i so vi V.

    Chng ta hiu rng gi trc to ra bi mt cng ty c o bng chnh lch gia V v C (V-C).

    Cng ty c th to ra gi tr bng cch chuyn i cc u vo vi chi ph C thnh sn phm mkhch hng s cm nhn vi mc gi tr V. Bn c th d dng hnh dung v cc cch thc m cngty c c li th cnh tranh. Thnht, cng ty s c gng to ra nhiu gi tr hn cho khch hng,lm cho h c c s tha mn vt trn

    c mong i ca chnh h. Cc n lc ca cng ty lm cho sn phm hp dn hn nhs vt triv thit k, tnh nng, cht lng v iu g tng t chnh khch hng cm nhn c mtgi tr ln hn (V ln hn) v h sn lng tr gi P cao hn. Thhai, cng ty c th c nng caohiu qu cc hot ng ca mnh gim chi ph (C). H qu l bin li nhun tng ln, hng n

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    mt li th cnh tranh. Ni mt cch khc, khi nim vssng to gi tr l ht nhn ca li thcnh tranh.1

    V d, xt trng hp ngnh my tnh c nhn. Vo gia nhng nm 1990, Compaq Computerang

    bn cc my tnh hng u trong tuyn sn phm ca n vi gi 2600 USD/chic (P), trong khiton b chi ph lin quan ti sn phm (C), bao gm chi ph nguyn vt liu, ch to, marketing,R&D, k c chi ph vn l 2300 USD/chic, to ra cho Compaq mt bin li nhun rng (tr htton b chi ph) l 300 USD/chic. Ngc li, mt nh cnh tranh ca n l AST ch c thi himc gi 2300 cho mt my tnh tng ng, trong khi chi ph sn xut l 2400 USD, lm choAST l rn