Psychotherapy & positive psychology James Hawkins, Independent Practice Edinburgh

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Transcript of Psychotherapy & positive psychology James Hawkins, Independent Practice Edinburgh

  • psychotherapy & positive psychology James Hawkins, Independent PracticeEdinburgh

  • key points of this workshopwhat is positive psychology & how has it developed?

    why is it relevant for psychotherapy?

    assessment issues

    some initial tastesDeci & RyanFredricksonGilbert & Neff

  • what is positive psychology and how has it developed?interest in the good life & what helps people thrive goes back millennia through Ryff, Deci & Ryan, Maslow, Rogers, Bugental, Jahoda, Allport, Jung & James to Aquinas & Aristotle the single most important contribution of posi-tive psychology has been to provide a collective identity a common voice and language for researchers & practitioners Linley & Joseph5 yr old Nikki & 1996 gardening grouch story

  • key points of this workshopwhat is positive psychology & how has it developed?

    why is it relevant for psychotherapy?

    assessment issues

    some initial tastesDeci & RyanFredricksonGilbert & Neff

  • the spectrum of mental healthfull mental health & flourishing are typically present in only 15-20% of the population this is important for 1.) overall enjoyment of life. 2.) risk of relapse into full diagnostic criteria or subsyndromal disorder. 3.) overall level of functioning in work & relationships

  • evidence from meta-analysesSin, N. L. and S. Lyubomirsky (2009). "Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis." Journal of Clinical Psychology 65(5): 467-487. Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). Chida, Y. and A. Steptoe (2008). "Positive Psychological Well-Being and Mortality: A Quantitative Review of Prospective Observational Studies." Psychosom Med 70(7): 741-756. Objective: To review systematically prospective, observational, cohort studies of the association between positive well-being and mortality using meta-analytic methods. Results: There were 35 studies (26 articles) investigating mortality in initially healthy populations and 35 studies (28 articles) of disease populations. The meta-analyses showed that positive psychological well-being was associated with reduced mortality in both the healthy population (combined hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82; p < .001) and the disease population (combined HR = 0.98; p = .030) studies. Intriguingly, meta-analysis of studies that controlled for negative affect showed that the protective effects of positive psychological well-being were independent of negative affect. recent research shows significant benefits of positive psychology interventions on reducing psychological symptoms and associations with improved mortality

  • evidence from smiles researchHertenstein, M., C. Hansel, et al. (2009). "Smile intensity in photographs predicts divorce later in life." Motivation and Emotion 33(2): 99-105. Abstract: Based on socialfunctional accounts of emotion, we conducted two studies examining whether the degree to which people smiled in photographs predicts the likelihood of divorce. Along with other theorists, we posited that smiling behavior in photographs is potentially indicative of underlying emotional dispositions that have direct and indirect life consequences. In the first study, we examined participants positive expressive behavior in college yearbook photos and in Study 2 we examined a variety of participants photos from childhood through early adulthood. In both studies, divorce was predicted by the degree to which subjects smiled in their photos.

    smile intensity protects against divorcesmile intensity predicts a longer lifeAbel, E. L. and M. L. Kruger (2010). "Smile intensity in photographs predicts longevity." Psychol Sci 21(4): 542-544. Five people rate the smile intensity of 230 baseball players according to photos featured in the 1952 Baseball Register. The researchers used a three-point smile scale: no smile, half smile (mouth only), and genuine 'Duchenne' smile (muscles contracted around the mouth and corners of the eyes). Focusing on the 150 players who'd died by the time of the study and controlling for extraneous factors such as BMI and marital status, the researchers found that those who were flashing a genuine 'Duchenne Smile' were half as likely to die in any given year compared with non-smilers. Indeed, the average life-span of the 63 deceased non-smilers was 72.9 years compared with 75 years for the 64 partial smilers and 79.9 years for the 23 Duchenne smilers.

  • why is positive psychology relevant for psychotherapists?positive psychology can be add-on therapy as client recovers to reduce relapse risk positive psychology can effect every aspect of therapy right from the very 1st session positive psychology is highly relevant for ourselves personally to improve both our own lives & our effectiveness as therapists

  • time to reflect!

  • key points of this workshopwhat is positive psychology & how has it developed?

    why is it relevant for psychotherapy?

    assessment issues

    some initial tastesDeci & RyanFredricksonGilbert & Neff

  • wellbeing assessment dashboardpositive emotionsflourishing variantslife satisfactionhappiness scalespanasfredrickson ratiodiener spaneself-determinationryff & keyesdiener, seligmanhuppert, etclife overalllife domains: work, relationships, etcother aspectsstrengths variantsoptimism, gratitude, compassion, etcsee blog post at www.stressedtozest.com

  • wellbeing assessment todaypositive emotionsflourishing variantslife satisfactionhappiness scalespanasfredrickson ratiodiener spaneself-determinationryff & keyesdiener, seligmanhuppert, etclife overalllife domains: work, relationships, etcother aspectsstrengths variantsoptimism, gratitude, compassion, etc

  • key points of this workshopwhat is positive psychology & how has it developed?

    why is it relevant for psychotherapy?

    assessment issues

    some initial tastesDeci & RyanFredricksonGilbert & Neff

  • self-determination theory (SDT)SDT is a general theory of motivation & personality that has evolved over the past three plus decades

    SDT suggests humans, like plants or other animals, intrinsically strive for need satisfaction & flourishing

    social contexts can support or thwart this need striving with major effects for health & wellbeing looking at wellbeing through the lens of self-determination theory www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT Deci, E. L. and R. M. Ryan (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, Plenum.Deci, E. L. and R. M. Ryan (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry 11: 227-268.

  • three key psychological needsa basic need (whether physiological or psychological) is defined as an energizing state that, if satisfied, promotes health & well-being but, if not satisfied, contributes to pathology and ill-being autonomy, competence & relatedness are 3 key basic psycho-logical needs how they can best be satisfied will vary with individual strengths, life stage, social context, and culture

    personal goals that lead to satisfaction of these 3 basic needs will promote well-being, but individuals due to broad societal conditioning and personal life history may well strive for goals that do not satisfy these needs or enhance their well-being Ryan, R. M. and E. L. Deci (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol 55(1): 68-78.

  • three key psychological needsautonomy: personal choice not compulsion by outside forcescompetence: capable & effective not incompetent & inefficientrelatedness: regular emotional intimacy & shared activities not isolation & loneliness Reis, H. T., K. M. Sheldon, et al. (2000). Daily well-being: the role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 26(4): 419-435. Sheldon, K. M., A. J. Elliot, et al. (2001). What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. J Pers Soc Psychol 80(2): 325-39.

  • what makes for a good day?people whose needs for autonomy, competence & relatedness are more satisfied experience greater well-being than those whose needs are less satisfiedat the same time, for each individual, days when these basic needs are more satisfied are experienced as better than days when the needs are less satisfiedits not just the total amount of need satisfaction, its also the balance that optimises well-beingSheldon, K. M., R. Ryan, et al. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 22(12): 1270-1279.Sheldon, K. M. and C. P. Niemiec (2006). It's not just the amount that counts: balanced need satisfaction also affects well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 91(2): 331-41.

  • goals, motivations & well-beingintrinsic goalsextrinsic goalscontrolled motivationsautonomous motivationswellbeingwellbeingwellbeingwellbeing

  • now for some activ