Psychological Disorders Patterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that are deviant, distressful...

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders Patterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that are deviant, distressful...


Abnormal Psychology1Psychological DisordersPatterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that are deviant, distressful and dysfunctionalMay vary with culture and across timeExp: 1952 - 1973: Homosexuality was classified as a an illnessAre classified by the DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersUses a process known as multiaxial diagnosis which includes five axes:Axis 1: Clinical disorders depression and anxiety disorersAxis 2: Personality disorders antisocial behavior, mental retardationAxis 3: General medical conditions diabetesAxis 4: Psychosocial and environmental problems death of family member, loss of jobAxis 5: Global assessment of a persons overall level of functioning from 1 (serious attempt at suicide) to 100 (happy, productive, many interests

Theories of Abnormal BehaviorThe psychoanalytic perspectiveViews mental disorders as the product of intrapsychic conflicts among the id, ego and superegoIn order to protect itself, the ego represses psychic conflicts into the unconsciousConflicts result from unresolved traumatic experiences that took place in childhood

The humanist perspectiveLooks to a persons feelings, self-esteem and self-concept for causes of mental behaviorBelieve behavior is the result of choices we make in struggling to find meaning in lifeTheories of Abnormal Behavior -cont-The cognitive perspectiveFocuses on faulty, illogical and negative ways of thinkingMaladaptive thoughts lead to misperceptions and misinterpretations of events and social interactions

The behavioral perspectiveStresses that abnormal behavior is learnedFocus on how a behavior was reinforced and rewarded

The biological perspectiveMany psychological disorders are caused by hormonal or neurotransmitter imbalances, differences in brain structure and inherited predispositionsAnxiety DisordersCharacterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxietyFive Types:Generalized anxiety disorder - person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasyCan lead to chronic fatigue and irritabilityAffects twice as many women as menPanic disorder - person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread or anxietyAccompanied by pounding heart, rapid breathing, sudden dizziness and lightheadednessAnxiety Disorders -cont-Five Types -cont-Phobias - an irrational fear causes a person to avoid some object, activity or situationTop Ten Fears, Men and Women CombinedFear of snakesFear of being buried aliveFear of heightsFear of being bound or tied upFear of drowningFear of public speakingFear of hellFear of cancerFear of tornadosFear of fire

Top Five Fears of Men and WomenFear of being buried aliveFear of heightsFear of snakesFear of drowningFear of public speakingFear of snakesFear of being bound or tied upFear of being buried aliveFear of heightsFear of public speakingTop 5 Fears of MenTop 5 Fears of WomenSome Unusual Phobias

Anxiety Disorders -cont-Five Types -cont-Obsessive-compulsive disorder - characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and /or actions (compulsions)Obsessive thoughts often lead to compulsive behaviorsNightline segmentObsessions v. CompulsionsExample:Obsession: A young woman is continuously terrified by the thought that cars might careen onto the sidewalk and run her over.Compulsion: She always walks as far from the street pavement as possible and wears red clothes so she will be immediately visible to an out of control car.Example:Obsession: A woman cannot rid herself of the thought that she might accidently leave her gas stove turned on, causing her house to explode.Compulsion: Every day she feels the irresistible urge to check the stove exactly 10 times before leaving for work.

Anxiety Disorders -cont-Five Types -cont-Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety and/or insomnia that last 4+ weeks after a traumatic experienceCan lead to depression, uncontrollable crying, edginess and an inability to concentrate

Understanding Anxiety DisordersLearning perspectiveFear conditioning use of stimulus generalization and reinforcementObservational learning we learn fear by observing the fears of othersBiological perspectiveNatural selection we naturally fear threats faced by our ancestorsGenes some people seem more predisposed to anxiety than othersThe brainSomatoform DisordersCharacterized by physical complaints or conditions which are caused by psychological factorsHypochondriasis - people interpret normal sensations (headache, stomach cramp) as symptoms of a dreaded diseaseConversion disorder marked by paralysis, blindness, deafness or other loss of sensation with no discernible physical causeDissociative DisordersDisorders in which a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity, often in response to a stressful situationPersons conscious awareness is said to dissociate (become separated) from painful memories, thoughts and feelingsDissociative identity disorder - 2+ distinct identities seem to alternately control the persons behaviorSome question whether this disorder existsDissociative amnesia characterized by partial or total inability to recall past experiences and important informationUsually in response to traumatic events or very stressful situationsDissociative fugue characterized by suddenly and inexplicably leaving home and taking on a new identity with no memory of a former lifeMood DisordersGeneral characteristics serious, persistent disturbances in a persons emotionsTwo formsMajor depressive disorderAt least 5 signs of depression (lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends and activities) last 2 or more weeks and are not caused by drugs or a medical conditionBipolar disorderAlternating between depression and mania - hyperactive, wildly optimistic stateMood Disorders -cont-DepressionIs accompanied by many behavioral and cognitive changesIs widespreadWomen are more than 2xs as vulnerable than menMost major episodes self-terminateIs often preceded by stressful eventsIs striking earlier w/each new generation and is affecting more people

Common Characteristics of Suicidal PeopleUnendurable psychological painFrustrated psychological needsSecurity, achievement, trust, friendshipThe search for a solutionAn attempt to end consciousnessHelplessness and hopelessnessConstriction of optionsSee only two alternatives: total solution or total cessationsAmbivalenceCommunication of intentDepartureLifelong coping patternsHow did person handle problems in the past?

Teen Suicide Rates 1960 - 2000

Understanding Mood DisordersThe biological perspectiveGenetic influence the heritability of major depression is estimated at 35-40%The brain studies have found less activity in the brain during slowed-down depressive states and more activity during periods of maniaBiochemical influences norepinephrine and serotonin are both reduced during depressionThe social-cognitive perspectiveSelf-defeating beliefsNegative explanatory style depressed people tend to explain bad events in terms that are stable, global and internalSchizophreniaGroup of disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actionsCharacteristic symptoms:Delusional beliefs bizarre or farfetched belief that continues in spite of competing contradictory evidenceHallucinations false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing itDisorganized speech and thought creating artificial words and jumbling words and phrases togetherEmotional and behavioral disturbances range from exaggerated and inappropriate reactions to a flat affect, showing no emotional or facial expressionsIncidence of Different Types of Hallucinations of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia -cont-Affects 1 in 100 peopleTypically begins in late adolescence or early adulthoodSometimes develops suddenlyWhen it develops slowly, recovery is doubtfulPositive symptoms - hallucinations, talking in a disorganized/deluded way, inappropriate laughter, tears or rageNegative symptoms - toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute, rigid bodies cardinals and hummingbirdsThe wild turkeys brethren we will ingest and digest with words of gratitude and pleasure in a successful year have great import on the futures we invest in for our generations joys and hopes for a brighter world. May the leaders and knowledgeable interpreters of common unconsciousness reap the benefits of revolutionary reassessment of our celebrations of harvests connection to the widespread and definitive collaborations and commitments to communities sanctity and sanity in responding to the woes and difficulties of our time with an eye towards understanding all of our interests in enjoying what short life we have to the fullest and spreading the positive methods and learning happiness that we can arrive at with the love of ancient histories constant lessons to stay true to the past and recall the philosophical lessons a reduction of our routines to some true message of youthful wisdom in health, wellness, fitness, and the true beauties of acknowledging our faults and focusing on the strengths inherent in our often fibrous or moderately tenuous connections to something perpetually reintegrated into new forms for the evolutionarily important innovations of our timeSchizophrenia -cont-CausesExcess of dopamine in the brainAbnormal brain activityLow birth weight/oxygen deprivation during deliveryMaternal viral infection - risk increases ifThere was a flu epidemic during fetal developmentBorn in a densely populated areaBorn in the winter/spring monthsMother is sick w/influenza during pregnancyGenetics1/10 chance of schizophrenia among those w/sibling or parent w/disorder if sibling is an identical twin (6/10 if they shared a placenta)Risk